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    黄鹤楼官网手机版:“六个着力”推进干部人事制度改革

    时间:2020-04-05 15:38:34 作者:袁二猛 浏览量:61664

    黄鹤楼官网手机版ostandardizethepurchaseofdrugsbymedicalinstitutionswasfir,thousandsofpharmaceuticalmanufacturersandsellershadtopayunder-tab,drugprovidersneededtonegotiateonebyonewithm,allprovincesandcitiesundersurveypromulgsarenotstrictlyobservedinpracticeandtheyneedtopayunder-tablemoneywhensellingdrugstomedicalinstitutions,medicalinstitutionsholdthatafterthegovernmentagenciesorganizeCentralizedPurchaseofDrugs,,thecateg,representativesfromhospitalsbelievethattheCentralizedPurchaseofDrugsreducesthepublicdenouncementrelatedtohighdrugpricestowardmedicalinstitutionsanddoctorsbecausehospitalsarenowpurchasingdrugsatthepricesthatwinthebid(orthepricesthatarepublishedviainternet).2TheuseofinformationsysteminthepharmaceuticalindustryhasbeenfacilitatedInChinathepharmaceuticalindustryiscomposedofdrugmanufacturers,drugsellers,medicalinstitutions,,insomelocalitiesrelatedgovernmentaldepartmentsar,informationsystemhasbeenrapidlyestablishedandenforcedinmedicalinstitutions,dhelpcontain,monitorandpunishthosefly-by-nightcompaniesThispositivee,theCentralizedPurchaseofDrugsPolicycancontributeintheseaspects:(1)Thechannelsfordrugcirculationhavebeenclearly-definedTheprovincesundersurveyhavemostlypublishedprovisionsaboutthechann,alldrugsthatwinthebidshouldgothroughthe"twoinvoicesregulation"practice,butorsandanotherinvoiceisissuedwhendrugdistributorsselldrugstomedicalinstitutions.(2)TheCentralizedPurchaseofDrugsPolicyhelptocontain"drugbrokers"andthosefly-by-nightcompanies"Drugbrokers"usuallybuydrugsfrommanufacturersatbottomp,,theprofitabilityof"drugbrokers",fly-by-nightcompanieshaveonecommonfeadrugtransactionbyinspectingauthorities.(3)ThePolicyincreasestheconcentrationofmarketinsomelocalitiesForexample,therewere500to600drugdispensingcompan,thetoptendispensingcompaniesoccupyabout80%,thestate-holdingcompaniesdistributed10%ofalldrugsandthegrossprofitratewas9-10%.In2007,state-holdingcompaniesdistributed20%ofdrugsandthegrossprofitratewasbroughtdownto5-6%.Especiallythelow-profit,low-va,theconcentrationofmarketisnotexplicit.ByZhaoChangwen,,2011Therecentfinancingdifficultyconfrontings,thisfinancingdifficultyhasbecomeamajorfactorthatmayaffe,weconductedasweeping,wehavethefollowingviewsoverwhetherthemonetarypolicyshouldbeadjustedtoeasethisfinancingdifficulty:ationofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,ainlycomesfromthefactthatinfaceofhigh-levelinflationandstronginflationexpectation,thedrasticallyrisingcostshavesharpenedthecontradictionbetweentherapidgrowthofthefinancingdemandandthelimitedgrowthofthefinancingsupplycapacityandthuswidenedthedebtfinancing"gap".So,,thefinancingsupplycapacityshouldbeexpandedandthefinancingdemandshouldbecontainedsothatthe"financinggap",ducedbyTightMonetaryPolicyCurrently,thefinancingdifficu:One,smallandmedium-sized,thisdifficultyhasbeenrepeatedlyreportedbyvariousmediaan,theReportoftheCentralBankontheExecutionofChinasMonetaryPolicyintheSecondQuarterof2011pointsoutthat"Theobjectivedifficultyforlarge,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoacquireloanswillgrowindifferentdegrees."OursurveyconductedinthecitiesofHangzhou,Suzhou,Chengdu,DalianandQingdaoallindicatethatover80%ofrespondententerprises,smalland,sIndustrialEconomyin2011,theMinistryofIndustryandInformationTechnologynotesthat"Theoverallcostforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoacquirebankloanshasrisenatleast13%."TheReportoftheCentralBankontheExecutionofChinasMonetaryPolicyintheSecondQuarterof2011alsoindicatesthat"Theinterestrateoftheloansgrantedbyfinancialinstitutionstonon-financiale%inJune,"Accordingtoasurveyreport,entitledTheCurrentFourPhenomenaofSmall-BusinessFinancinginFaceofMacroRegulationDeserveAttentionandpreparedbyChinaBankingRegulatoryCommission,mostbankinginstitutionsinacentrally-administeredmunicipalityhaveraisedtheirbenchmarkinterestrateby20%~30%andsomeofthemhaveevenraisedtherateby50%~60%.Meanwhile,,consultingfee,releasingloansonthebasisofdepositdeductionandothermethods,theyhaverealizedanoverallreturnrateforsmallbusinessloansthatisnolessthan40%um-sizedenterp,privateusuriousloanshavebecsBankofChina,89%%enterprisesinthecityofWenzhouhavebeeninvolvedinprivatefsPrivateFinancingMarket%inJune,%smallenterpris,themonthlyinterestratewasashighas15%.InthecitiesofXiamenandShishiinFujianProvince,severalenterpr,somepeoplecitetheReportoftheCentralBankontheExecutionofChinasMonetaryPolicyintheSecondQuarterof2011andmaintainthattheactualfinancingdiff"AttheendofJune2011,thebalanceoftheRMBloans(includingbilldiscount),%,,%yearonyearand9percentagepointshigherthantheaveragegrowthrateofallloans."donotandcannotaccuratelyreflecttherealfinancingdemandofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesorthesizeofthesupply-demand"gap".Infact,weknowfromoursurveythatafterthefinancialcrisis,manysmallandmedium-sizedenterpriseshaverapidlyexpandedproductionandoperation,adjustedproductstructureandcarriedoutindustrialtransformationinordertomeetingtheneedofmarketcompetition,andt,,wecannotsimplytakethegrowthofbankloanbalanceasanindicationof"afurtherimprovementofthefinancingconditionsoftheseenterprises".Therehavebeenmanyexplanationsaboutthe:

    ByWangWeiLiuTao,DRCTaskForceon"IssuesFacingSmallandMedium-sizedEnterprises:CountermeasuresunderNewCircumstances",2011Theservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesisasystemfortheseenterprisestogainaccesstosuchfactorresourcesasinformation,fundsandtrainedpersonnelaswellasrelevantproducerservicesinthecourseofestablishing,lopmentofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesandisalsoamainchannelforthegovernmenttoimplementpoliciestowardsmallandmedium-dmedium-sizedenterprisesSincetheguidelineon"nurturingtheservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises"wasputforwardatthe4thPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteeheldin1999,Chinahas,throughaseriesofsupportivepolicies,setupaninitialframeworkoftheservicesystemwiththestate-ownedserviceagenciesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesasthemainstayandgovernment-supportedsocialintermediaryserviceagencies(tradeassociations,chambersofcommerceandnonprofitorganizations)amajoragenciesinthecectservicefunctionsofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesbythegovernment,suchagencieswereestablishedwithgovernmentfunds,whichprovidedservicestosmallandmedium-siz,therehadbeen525state-ownedserviceagenciesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesacrossthecountryandabout1/3ofprovinces,regionsandmunicipalitieshadsetuptheserviceagenciesattheprovincial,,thestate-ownedserviceagencieshavealsojoinedhandswithmorethan4,000socialized,,thenumberofcreditguaranteeinstitutionsforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesreached5,547,,,theinformationservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterpriseshasexpandedfromanationalstationin2000to47provincialstationsand949subsidiarystations,ope,,thecentralgovernmenthasmadeatotalinputofapproximately180millionyuanandcompletedthefreecentralizedtrainingof300,000persons,thelong-distancenet-basedtrainingof500,,thecentralgovernmenthasmotivatedlocalgove,,thece,providingsupportfor522serviceagenciesandofferedservicesto119,,,thecentralgovernmenthasarrangedthebudgetaryspecialfundsandspecialdevelopmentfundsfortheservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestotaling500millionyuanandsupported238constructionprojectsconductedinregionsa,23provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitieshaveprovidedfundsupportfortheconstructionandoperationoftheplatformswithanearmarkedfundof480millionyuanand1,,relevantfacilitationshaveb,theStatesetupthe"InternationalMarketExploitationFundforSmallandMedium-sizedEnterprises"tosubsidizesuch,theChinaInternationalSmallandMediumEnterprisesFairhasbeenheldatregularintervals,furtheringtheconstructionofthecont,theStatehasalsoactivelyinitiatedandencouragedlargeenterprisestosetuprelativelystablecoordi,theservicesystemhasalsoachievedprogressintermsoflegalserviceandmanagementconsultingandhasfacilitatedthedevstemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesWhenadvancingtheconstructionoftheservicesystem,alllocalitieshavemadeinnovativeexplorationsofservi,innovationsaremadeonmodeoforder-basedpurchaseofservicesbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,namely,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesplaceordersthroughquestionnaires,,thestate-ownedserviceagenciesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesorganizefinesocialresourcestooffertherightspecialservicesand,innovationsaremadeonmodeofserviceconnection,servicealliancesorspecializedsupermarketsaresetupforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,professionalserviceagenciesofcreditguarantee,managementconsulting,technologypopularizationandtaxationagencyareselectedtorealizethelinkageofsmallandmedium-sizedenterpriseswithexcellentserviceresourcesandtooffer,agenciesofthistypehaveservedanaccumulativetotalofmorethan600,000smallandmedium-sizedenterprises.至尊国际官方下载——ExemplifiedwiththecityofHangzhouByWangZhonghongResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCLiJianwei,,andUpgradinginSoutheastCoastalAreaDespitetheremarkablesuccessesachievedovermorethanthirtyyearsofreformandopeningup,drawbackshaveincreasinglyshowedupinthemodeoftheindustrialdevelopmentinChina,inparticular,changesininternationalanddomesticenvironmentshavebroughtaboutnewchallengesandcontradictions:tionalcomparativeadvantagesFirst,~2009,wageofworkersofthemanufacturingindustryincreasedby30%inHangzhou,whilelaborcostsmountedupbyayear-on-year25%~30%inHangzhoufromJanuarytoApril,,%inHangzhou,yearonyear,%fromayearearlier,wideningthegapb,,thebalanceofbankloansandtheincreaseincurrentassetsoftheindustrialenterprisesabovetheand,inparticular,%%,r1millionkilowattsinHangzhou,precariousfactorsExportinforeigntradeisnotoptimisticasaresultofthesloweconomicresurgenceindevelopedcountries,themajoreffortsdevotedbydevelopedcountriestoadvancingre-industrializationandthetr,enterpriseshavemuchdifficultygettingthegraspofthepricetrendsofstaplecommoditiesandtherenminbiexchangerates,,%.Inthefirstquarterof2011,thevalueofg%,;%inApril,,theRDinputbyind%oftheirbusinessturnover,%enefit,,%%%in2009,%andmuchlowerthantheaverageofover35%smotivationfornongovernmentalinvestmentPerfectinfrastructuref,aggregationofpopulation,changeofmeansoftransportationandtransformationofproductionpatternsandlifestyles,thenewroundofinfrastructureconstructionhasbecometheimge,thenongovernmen,,%,thenongovernmentalinvestmentinwaterconservancyfocusedonmunicipalinfrastructureconstructionandincommunicationsandtransportation,warehousingandpostalservicefocusedonm%%andUpgradinginSoutheastCoastalAreaTheauthorsareoftheopinionthat,toaddresstheabove-mentionedcontradictionsandchallengesandincompliancewiththetraditionaltheoriesonindustrialtransformationandupgrading,prioritiesshouldbeplacedonimprovingtheenvironmentsforindustrialdevelopment,enhancingthecapabilitiesforindustrialdevelopmentandoptimizingtheobjectivesforindustrialperformancefortheindustrialtransformationandupgradinginsoutheastcoastalareainthedaystocome,withthethreeaspectscorrelatingwith,forindustrialdevelo,socialenvironment,governmentrolesandmarketdemand.(1)NaturalenvironmentThenaturalenvironmentmainlyreferstoresourcesandinfrastructurefacilities,locationandclimate,suchastheadequacyoflandandwaterresources,transportconvenience,supplyoftelecommunications,broadband,power,oilandgasandthefacilitiesofenvironmentalprotection,,,whe,relevantsurveysindicatethatHangzhouis,stepuptheintegrationofwharfsalongthebothsidesofthecanalandstrengthentheconstructionofwaterwayinfrastructurefacilitiesandmodernfunctionalportareasisanimportantpartinimprovingHangzhousnaturalenvironment.

    ,2008Ruralinfrastructureandpublicservicesystemconstitu,improvingruralinfrastructureandpublicservice,thegovernmenthasincreasedinp,theoutdatedruralinfrastructurehasnotwitnessedanymajorimproveme,thisurban-ruralgapcanbeattributed,toaverylargeextent,,inwhich"agricultureispromotedbyindustryandcountrysideissupportedbycity",ChinahasalreadypossessedthebasicconditionsandcapacitiestoshifttheemphasisofthecoyofpublicproductsinChinasruralareashaslongobservedthebasicprincipleof"self-reliancefirstandgovernmentsupportsecond".Thesupplyofruralpublicproductshasbeenmainlyrelyingonthepeasantsthemselves,,medicalcare,socialsecurity,publicinfrastructureandotherpublicservices,,itfatilthe16thPartyCongresswstructionofanewsocialistcountrysideasamajorhistorictaskanddecided,forthefirsttimeinhistory,"threereductions"(reductionofagriculturaltax,reductionoftaxonspecialagriculturalproductsandreductionofchargesforruraleducation)and"threesubsidies"(subsidiesforgrainproduction,seedsimprovementandthepurchaseofagriculturalmachines),aseri,thesupportofpublicfinancetoruraldevelopmentshiftedfromthepastnarrowscopeofagriculturalproducti,ruraleducation,health,culture,roadconstruction,drinkingwaterforhumansandanimals,anduralinfrastructureandsocialundertakingssincethe16thPartyCongress,ruralinfrastructureconstructi,,th,atotalof870,000kilometersofruralroadswereeitherconstructedorreconstructed,with580,,325,000kilometersofruralroadswereconstructedorreconstructed,458townshipsortownsand17,764administrativevillageswereconnectedwithhighways,and1,708townshipsortownsand43,,thetotalmileageofChina,%%oftheadministrativevillageshadbeenconnectedwithhighways,%%of,Chinas,,,,theconstructionofruralwatercontrolfacilities,featuringthewater-savingtransformationprojectsinthelargeirrigatedareas,thewater-savingirrigationdemonstrationprojectsandthewatercontrolexperimentsinthepastoralareas,,,,eachbeing300,000mu,,,,theareaundersprayirrigation,,andtheareaunderrain-collec%ofthetotallengthofvariouschannelsintheirrigationareas,eachbeingmorethan10,edCurrently,97%ofChinastownshipsandtownscanbeconnectedwiththeInternetand92%,thereareover6,"three-in-one"integratedinformationserviceplatformsthatincorporatetheadvantagesoftelephone,(county,townshipandvillage)informat%oftheadministrativevillagesacrossthecountry,,telephoneservicecovered13,740newadministrativevillages,,atotalof6700centralandgrass-rootsservicestationswereestablishedbyrelyingonthepubliclibrariesatvariouslevelsandtheculturalstationsatthetownship,ndthemoderndistanceeducationprojectforruralprimaryandmiddleschoolshaverespectivelybuilt197,000and181,,anationwidesductionandlife,andhaspreliminarilysolvedtheirdifficultiesinreadingbooksandwatchingmovies,andhasenrichedtheirspare-timeculturallife.黄鹤楼官网手机版ByShiYaodong,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo180,2012(Total4182)Inadequateinnovationcapabilityoflargestate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)canbemainlyattributedto"fivelacks",namely,lackofstimulation,capabilities,experiences,reluctancetomadeinvestmentindifficultinnovationactivitieswhichinvolvelargeinvestment,highrisksandlonginvestmentrecoveryperiod,theyareoftenfoundto"bewellcapablebutpoorlystimulated".First,asthemajorplayerininnovationactivities,,,,,,,oncesucceed,canbringprofitsmuchhighe,especiallyleadingplayersinthemarket,duetoinadequatecompetitionpressure,mostofthemdonotfeelmuchpressureforsurvivalanddevelopment,,comparedwithotherenterprise,SOEsaremorelikelytoinvestinlow-riskandsophisticatedtechnologiesandproducts,andareparticularlyinclinedtoorganizemassiveproductionbyintroducingforeignproventechnologies,ratherthanconductingoriginalinnovationaciditiesinvolvinglargeinvestment,,entrepreneursarepersonalizedrepresentativesofenterpriseties,tlongsuchasstockincentivesmechanism;otherwise,entrepreneursmaychooseinnovationactivitiesinvolvinglowestrisks,forfearoffailureofexpensiveinnovationactivities,ortheymayputshareholdersecognizedsocialstatus,icials,whichisknownasthe"revolvingdoor"phenomenon,,socialstatusandsenseofhonorandfulfillmentlargelydependontheenterprisesize,growthrateandstability,,theRDemployeesarethosewhoconductinnovationactivities,andthestimulationforthesepe,theRDstaffhasthesamedemandforre,SOEsRDstaffreceivelowerremunerationlimitedbytheceilingontotalwages(thetotalwagesmaygrowannuallyaccordingtotheperformanceoftheyear,buttheincrementisusuallysmallerthaninforeign-fundedandprivateenterprises)verelyimpairedtheirenthusiasmininnovation,andtheyareinclinerivateenterprises,astheirRDstaffoftenma,,SOEshaveneverbeeninthesituationthatonlybyjointinnovationcantheysurviveanddevelop,,theconsiderabledisparityinstrengthconfinesthedesireforjointinnovation,whilelargeSOEsarereluctanttotitssharingandenterprisesounterpartsforinnovation.

    黄鹤楼官网手机版:“六个着力”推进干部人事制度改革 ByLiZhinengWangJicheng,DRCTaskForceonLaborShortageinEnterprisesinSpring2012,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCOveraperiodoftimeaftertheSpringFestival(ChinasLunarNewYearwhichfallsonJanuary23,2012),manymassmediareportedthe"laborshortage"issueinsomelocalitiesandenterprises,whichdrewextensiveattentionofgovernmentaldepartmentsconcerned."Laborshortage"indicatestheovegdong,Zhejiang,Henan,Anhui,SichuanandShaanxiProvincestofindoutifthereisorwillreallybea"laborshortage",ReasonableandRelaxedwithaHighRateofReturntoJobs,WhichIsQuiteOppositetotheReported"LaborShortage"ZhejiangProvinceisstillfacingarecruitmentplightin2012,yetthetenselaboremploymenthasbeenalleviatedascomparedtothepreviousyear,andthelabor-starvedindustriesandtypesofworktallybasicallywiththeprovince,ahighrateofreturntojobshasbeenwitnessedamongwork,thesurveyof4,000smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinYiwucitysuggeststhatinrecentyearsanaverageof65%ofveteranworkershavereturnedtofactoriesinYiwuandthenumberofnewworkersintroducedbyveteranworkersonlabormarketmadeupanother25%,leavingarelativelyreasonable10%,,,%ofthehome-returneesbeforetheSpringFestival,andtheti,therateofreturntojobsapproached90%.AftertheSpringFestival,therecruitmentisaimedatstaffsupplement,withtherecruitmen,employingworkerscautiouslya,themonitoringdataonlaboremploymentbyenterprisesofHenanProvincedemonstratethatthelaborshortageratewas18%,icipalitiesrevealthattherateofworkersreturntojobsexceeded70%,"recruitmentplight"ocialSecurityDepartmentamong10,654enterprisesin30state-andprovince-leveleconomican%%skeyenterprisesofelectricalhomeappliancesandfastmovingconsumergoodssawtheirratesofworkersreturntojobsaftertheSpringFestivalallexceeding90%and"enormousstaffinflowsandoutflows",GuangdongandAnhuiasaResultofEconomicGrowthSlowingDownandExportDecliningThefactthattheglobalfinancialcrisisisstillfarfromcomingto,theinternalresources,environmentalconstraintsandstructuralreadjustmentfacingChinaseconomicdevelopmenthaveallmadethedownturnofChinasGDPaverageannualgrowthrateinevitableduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodandareproducingachallengeto,smallandurgentordersareinlargenumber,,fromJanuary26toFebruary12,2012,,%,(February6),theprovincesstatisticalandsurveydepartmentr,tyear,suggestingthattheutilizationan,thenumberofnewlyincomingmigrantworkershasaccountedforonly5%orsoofallmigrantworkersintheprovince,beinglowerthanthelevelof10%sspeciallaboremploymentinvestigationdemonstratesthat3,966enterprisesintheprovinceareshortof50laborersormoreandtheyintendtorecruit245,000people,signifyingareductionof13,%.Labordemandonthehumanresourcesmarketisdecreasingaswellfromayearearlierandtheprincipalcauseisthatthepressureof,TransferwithinProvincesIsGrowingFast,theNumberofWorkersReturningHometownsforBusinessStartupandBackflowofSkilledWorkersHaveIncreased,yetOnlySomeNewly-increasedWorkersCanBeLocallyProvidedwithJobsAtpresent,,,,000everyyearduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,whiletheprovincecanonlyprovide350,000jobs,an,Yulin,TongchuanandHabusinessstartupsintheirhometowns,entrepreneurshiptrainingandsuchpoliciesasgovernmentsupplyofsmallloansguarantees,thenumberofmigr,224,000farmershadgonebacktoShaanxitostartbusinessesandsetup98,000enterprises,providingjobsto595,,,,ysbeengrowingsince2001andthenumberincreasedto23millionin2011,,upby778,000,,down214,"NewAreasofSichuan",thekeyprojectsinChengduin2012wouldneed350,,,2millionpeopleincitiesandtownsoftheprovinceneedjobsandtherea,ononehand,thesituationofChinafacedwithapressureofitsaggregateemploymentvolumecontinuallyintensifyinghasbecomemoresevereandcomplicatedduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodand,ontheother,thelaborforcetransferandrivalryamongtheeastern,lusters,whilecentralandwesternregionstakeineasterncoastalregionwithinashortperiodoftimeintermsofrelativelyperfectinfrastructurefacilities,completeindustrialchains,betterlivinpacitiesincentralandwesternregionshasincreasedtheaggregatelabordemand,yetwhentakingovershiftedindustriesandenterprisesfromtheeasternregion,someprovincesandmunicipalitiesincentralabypresententerprisesandareunableatalltoabsorbtheworkingpopulationsqueezedoutfromtheeasternregioninaddressingthefinancialcrisisandexportdownturn.

    Figure1GrowthRateofOutputValueoftheEnterprisesaboveDesignatedScaleintheFirstSevenMonthsof2008(atcurrentprice)dium-sizedenterprises,buttheirassets-profitratiosweresimilarInthefirstfivemonthsof2008,thesales-profitratio(totalprofit/salesrevenue)%,%,theirassets-profitratio(totalprofit/totalassets),%%.Afterthesectorsofoilprocessing,electricityandwatersubjecttostrictpricecontrolareexcluded,%%thanthoseoflargeandmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,,%,,%andmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,Chinahadatotal343,%ofthe35,200largeandmedium-sizedenterprisessufferedloss,%ofthe308,,privateandotherenterprisesgrewfasterIntermsoftotaloutputvalue,,%HongKong,MacaoandTaiwan,%,%,bothprivateenterprisesandotherenterprisespostedafairlyfastgrowth,%%(%)gKong,%,atthesameleveloftheaveragegrowthrateofallindustrialenterprises.ByGeYanfeng,YuDongandZhangBingzi,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo87,2012Developmentofsocialpoliciesandrelatedinstitutionalimprovementsnotonlymakeitimportanttoclarifythetrendofreformanddevelopmentinvariousfieldsandspecificpolicies,butalsorequireadvancementofinstitutionalreforminrelatedfieldsandimprovementoftheoperationalmechanism,especiallyintermsoftechnologyselectionandmanagementinkeyfields,soastochallengesexperiencedinmakingandimplementingsocialpoliciesinChina,wewouldliketodrawattentiontothefollowingaspects:nTermsofResponsibilityforSocialSecurityandPublicServiceSocialsecurityandpublicservicefallintothegovernments,thenon-smoothresponsibilityrelationshipsamonggovernmentsatdifferentlevelshaveseverelyhinderedsocialdevelopment,mentsatdifferentlevelsconcerningdecision-makingrelatedtosocialsecurityandpublicservice,aswellasfollow-upinvestment,sresponsibilityfordecision-makingandoverallplanningInthefieldofsocialsecurityandpublicservice,wemustadheretoequalityandpolicyconsistency,thusitisessentialtofurtherstrengthenthecentralgovernment,thelocalgovernmentscouldbegivenrelevantrightinmakingspecificpoliciestosomeextent,butthegeneraldirectiofthecharacteristicsofdifferenttypesofsocialsecurityandpublicservice,itmustbemadeclearwhatistheresponsibilityofthegovernmentsatahigherlevel,whatresponsibilityrestswiththelocalgovernments,especiallyatthegrass-rootslevel,,especiallythoseatthelevelofcountiesandthecounty-levelcities,areresimplementationInviewoftheimbalanceineconomicdevelopmentfromregiontoregionandthefactthatlocalgovernmentsarecountedoninthedeliveryofserviceandadministration,itisimperativetofurtherreformandimprovethecost-sharingmechanism,strengthenthecentralandprovincialgovernmentsgeneraltransferpaymenttolocalgovernments,soastoequalizethegovernments,theexpendresponsibilityforsupervisinglocalsocialdevelopmentTheobjectivesandevaluationstandardsinthisregardshouldbestipulatedbythecentralgovernmentwhiletheconcretesupervisionandeval,itisessentialt,IdentifyProductAttributesandCost-sharingMechanism,andEnsureBenefitofthePublic,atareasonablelevelofserviceisprovided,inabidtopromotestandardizationofbasicpublicserviceThelevelandstandardofsocialsecurityandpublicservicemustbeinaccordancewithdevelopmentrequirement,ertoohighnortoolow,itistheprior,areasonablelevelofflexibilitywhichcanneverbetoogreatisallowedinthisregard;withinthesameregion,th,soastoenhanceperformanceofpublicinvestmentWeshouldnotonlysteadilyincreaseinvestment,butmoreimportantlyweneedtoenhancetheperformanceofthepublicinvestmentthroughinstitutionalizationeffortsandensurtinginvestmentforroutineoperation,andest,weneedtoreinforcesupervisionuponuseofpublicfunds,standardizecapitalflow,promoteopenandtran,weneedtofullylzedITdevelopmentandapplicationinvariousfieldsandbetweendifferentregions,,weneedtopromoteapplicationanddevelopmentofITtechnology,tobettermanagesocialsecurity,mWeshouldfullydrawoninternationalexperienceinthisrespect,offerserviceforfree,withbelow-costpricingoraccordingtocostdep,itisappropriatetoprovideitforfree,orforasmallfee(forthepurposeofavoidingwaste).Regardingtheserviceandthecostofwhichneedstobesharedbyindividualsandfamilies,theindividualsabilitytopaymustbetakenintofullconsideration,andcorrespondingreduction,exemptionorsubsidypoliciesshouldbedeveloped,toavoidreversetransferpaymentandensurethebenefitofthemiddleandlow-incomesocialgroups.黄鹤楼官网手机版

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    ByShenHengchao,ResearchTeamon"StrategicMajorResearchonBuildingHefeiintoanInnovativeTrialCity",DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch(DRC)ResearchReportNo69,2011Technology-basedsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesarethemostactiveysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,suchasriskinvestment,privatesharesandcorporatebonds,zedenterprises(hereinafterreferredtoassmallandmedium-sizedenterprises).Inrecentyears,localgovernmentshavemadepositiveexplorationultforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestogainaccesstofinancinganditismoredifficultfortheseenterprises,whichhavejustbeenestablishedandareseekingtheirowngrowth,,theseenterprisesusuallygainfinancingbyissuingcorporatebonds,,apartformtheaforesaidwaysforraisingfunds,theycanalsogetfinancedwithloansfromcommercialbanks,,channelsforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoraisefundsinChinaarefewandfarbetween:OTCtradingmarketthatissuitedforprivatesharesandcorporatebondshasnotyetgrownup;thesizeoftheriskinvestmentissmallandsuchinvestmentisboundupinenterprisesonlargeinvestmentscale;privatesectorborrowinghasbeenlongconductedunderground;commercialbanksarequiteprudentwithsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesshortofcollaterals;thethresholdishighforissuingcorporatebonds,publiclistingandissuingcorporatebondsopenly;:Firstistocollectthefundsonthestockmarket;thesecondistostrivetoacquireriskinvestment.(1)Themulti-leveledstockmarketsuitedforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoobtainfinancehasnotyetgrownupIndevelopedcountries,thenationalpubliclistingmarketsatthehighestlevelandthereiveuptotherequirementsforpubliclisting,,naSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionandthesharesshouldbetradedinShenzhenandShanghai;sharesofnon-listingpubliccompanies,ifwithdrawnfromthemarket,shouldbetradedundertheagencysharetransfersystem(OldSanBan)atnon-listingcompaniesandthenewlyissuedsharesshouldbetradedontheOTCtradingmarketinTianjin,withthelatterbeingunderconstruction;sharesissuedbynon-publiccompaniesthroughprivatecollectionarecurrentlybeingtradedundertheagencysharetransfersystem(NewSanBan)inZhongguancunandatTianjinEquityExchangeandChinaHi-techPropertyExchange(CHTPE),vateshares,yetprivateshareshavenotbecomeaneffectivemeansoffinancingduetotheimpededtradingchannels.(2)Thesizeofriskinvestmentissmallandsuchinvestmentisboundupingrown-upenterprisesAsanimportantchanneloffinancingforindependentinnovation,,duetotheimpedimentofthewithdrawalchannels,theheavyburdenoftaxationandtheimperfectionofthesystemsrelatingtoprivatelyofferedfunds,thesizeoftheriskinvestmenttendstobesmallandisboundupingrown-upenterprises,makingitdifficulttomeetthedemandofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,thatin2009556briskrisk:Thefirstistogetfinanceddirectlyonthebondmarket;thesecondistogetloansthroughfinancialintermediaries.(1)Issueofenterprisebondsandpublicissueofcorporatebondshavelittletodowithsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesIndevelopedcountries,aregistrationsystemiscarriedoutfortrprises,,therehavebeenenterprisebondsiseBondspromulgatedin1993,beingexaminedandapprovedbyNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,andwithenforcementthroughmandatoryadministrativeorder,yuanandthatofthelimitedliabilitycompaniesshallequalnolessthan60millionyuan,,theOT,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesareunabletodothefinancingbyprivatelyofferingcorporatebonds.

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    —SurveyonShandongTextileEnterprisesByShenHengchao,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch,theDRCResearchReportNo124,2009Withasignificantroleinadmittingemploymentandincreasingfarmersincome,textileindustryisthetraditionalpillarindustryinnationaleconomy,aswellasanimportantindustryforpeople,textileind,industrythroughinnovation,wemadeasurveyrespectivelyinRuyiGroup,LutaiGroup,:textiletechnologyofindependentresearchanddevelopmenthasbrokenthroughthelimitofpresenttechnologyofspunhighcountcottonyarnThepr,especiallytherapiddevelopmentinnearly10years,thegrouphasbeeninvolvedinmajorbusinessaswooltopmaking,worsted,rabbithairspinning,clothes,cottontextile,cottondyeprinting,knitting,fiberandjean,andhasestablishedacompletewoolfashionandcottondyeingindustrychain.(1)EstablishingrelativelycompletetechnologyinnovationanddevelopmentsystemRecognizedashi-techenterprisein2008,RuyiGrouphasbeenlistedthenationalnew-productdevelopmentbaseofwooltextileindustrybyChinaNationalTextileandApparelCouncil(CNTAC).Underthesystemofnationalenterprisetechnologycenter,thegroupboastsapost-doctoralscientificresearchworkstation,ShandongTaishanScholarposition,ShandongNewTextileFabricsEngineeringResearchCenter,RuyiTechnologyResearchInstitute,Group-levelTechnologyCenterandCompany-levelTechnologyCenter,whichareresponsiblefortechnologyreposition,ithleadinglevelsinChina,outofwhich4areawardedNationalScienceandTechnologyAdvancementPrize,and40areawardedprovincialandmunicipalprizesforprogressinscienceandtechnology(including3provincialfirstprizes,7secondprizesand2ministry-levelfirstprizes).Thegrouphas22patentsgrantedwithpatentrightsand30patentsapplications(including1PCTpatentforinvention,1Americanand7Chinesepatentsforinvention),RuyiGroupfirstattendedthetopmaterialworldexpoFrancePV(thefirstvisionexpo),showingthattheenterprisehasacquiredthecapacityofdevelopingtop-leveltextilematerialandissuingpopulartrendofmaterials.(2)ResearchinganddevelopingtextiletechnologyofRuyifangindependentlyandemphasizingnewproductdevelopmentRuyiGroup,WuhanInstituteofScienceandTechnology,XianPolytechnicUniversityhavesuccessivelydevelopedthroughcooperation"shortandefficientflowofembeddedcompositespinningtechnology(Ruyifang)"inFebruary,2009,whichbrokethroughthelimitofpresentring-spinningtechnologyofhigh-countworstedandrealizedlow-gradefibermaterialsandleftovershigh-countworstedandreachedspinningapplicationoffibermaterialswhichwerepreviou(CNTAC)andacademiciansfromtheChineseAcademyofEngineering,itbelongstoasignificantoriginaltechnologywhichwillreinforcetheinternationalcompetitiveedgeofChinaNationalTextileandApparelCouncil(CNTAC),homemadesuperfinewoolyarnprocessingtechnology,techniqueofsingleyarnweaving,clearproductiontechnology,enzymetreatmenttechnology,non-formaldehydewrinkle-resistanceandshrink-prooftechnology,multiplechemicaltechnology,technologyofrecoveryandutilizationofwastewaterremainingheat,,RuyiGrouphasdevelopedaseriesofproductsasSirofil,high-countlight-weightworstedfabric,ecologicalenvironmentalprotection,shape-memory,washable,superfinecashmere,lycraelasticandwater,,000ty,Sirofilspinningtechnologyanditsserialproductswereawardedthesecond-classNationalScienceandTechnologyAdvancementPrize,whichisthehighestscienceandtechnolodworld-toplevel,winningthegrouptwofirst-classScienceandTechnologyAdvancementPrizesawardedbyChinaNationalTextileandApparelCouncil(CNTAC):emphasizingresearchanddevelopmentandexploitingnewproductswithforeigncustomersLutaiGroupisthelargesttop-gradeyarn-dyedfacefabricmanufacturerintheworldandhastheproductionandresearchcapacityofcompleteproductionchainsascottonplanting,spinning,anddyeing,cleaning,,,LutaiGroupbelongstothetopyarn-dyedfacefabricmanufacturercompetingagainstNisshinboTextileInc.(Japan),ABINI(Italy)andMONTI(Italy).,%%,%.(1)StrengtheningtheenterpriseresearchanddevelopmentsystemandenlargingtheinvestmentLutaiGroupwasrecognizedasthehi-techenterpriseagainin2008ansideaonpromotingcompetitionistomeetcustomer,researchanddevelopmentexpenditureaccountsforover5%lpatents,,LutaiGrouphasgraduallyformedathree-levelresearchanddevelopmentsystemwhichregardsenterprisetechnicalcentreasthepillarcomposedoftechnologyresearchsectionofeachbnologysuchasoffice,trainingcenter,pilotbaseforspinning,weaving,cleaningandclothesmaking,qualityinspectioncenter,promotiondepartmentoftechnologydevelopment,post-doctoralresearchworkstation,LutaitechnicalresearchcenterofDonghuauniversity,LutaiKleintechnologyresearchcenterfortextile,dyeingandfinishinganddevelopmentanddesigncenterforItalianproducts,iveministriesofthecountryanditslaboratoryhaspassedthecertificationbyChinaNationalAccreditationServiceforConformityAssessment(CNAS).

    省委召开常委会会议暨省委应对新冠肺炎疫情工作领导小组第七次会议传达学习习近平总书记重要讲话精神和中央有关会议精神听取我省有关工作推进情况汇报研究部署下一步相关工作

    ByLiZhinengWangJicheng,DRCTaskForceonLaborShortageinEnterprisesinSpring2012,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCOveraperiodoftimeaftertheSpringFestival(ChinasLunarNewYearwhichfallsonJanuary23,2012),manymassmediareportedthe"laborshortage"issueinsomelocalitiesandenterprises,whichdrewextensiveattentionofgovernmentaldepartmentsconcerned."Laborshortage"indicatestheovegdong,Zhejiang,Henan,Anhui,SichuanandShaanxiProvincestofindoutifthereisorwillreallybea"laborshortage",ReasonableandRelaxedwithaHighRateofReturntoJobs,WhichIsQuiteOppositetotheReported"LaborShortage"ZhejiangProvinceisstillfacingarecruitmentplightin2012,yetthetenselaboremploymenthasbeenalleviatedascomparedtothepreviousyear,andthelabor-starvedindustriesandtypesofworktallybasicallywiththeprovince,ahighrateofreturntojobshasbeenwitnessedamongwork,thesurveyof4,000smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinYiwucitysuggeststhatinrecentyearsanaverageof65%ofveteranworkershavereturnedtofactoriesinYiwuandthenumberofnewworkersintroducedbyveteranworkersonlabormarketmadeupanother25%,leavingarelativelyreasonable10%,,,%ofthehome-returneesbeforetheSpringFestival,andtheti,therateofreturntojobsapproached90%.AftertheSpringFestival,therecruitmentisaimedatstaffsupplement,withtherecruitmen,employingworkerscautiouslya,themonitoringdataonlaboremploymentbyenterprisesofHenanProvincedemonstratethatthelaborshortageratewas18%,icipalitiesrevealthattherateofworkersreturntojobsexceeded70%,"recruitmentplight"ocialSecurityDepartmentamong10,654enterprisesin30state-andprovince-leveleconomican%%skeyenterprisesofelectricalhomeappliancesandfastmovingconsumergoodssawtheirratesofworkersreturntojobsaftertheSpringFestivalallexceeding90%and"enormousstaffinflowsandoutflows",GuangdongandAnhuiasaResultofEconomicGrowthSlowingDownandExportDecliningThefactthattheglobalfinancialcrisisisstillfarfromcomingto,theinternalresources,environmentalconstraintsandstructuralreadjustmentfacingChinaseconomicdevelopmenthaveallmadethedownturnofChinasGDPaverageannualgrowthrateinevitableduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodandareproducingachallengeto,smallandurgentordersareinlargenumber,,fromJanuary26toFebruary12,2012,,%,(February6),theprovincesstatisticalandsurveydepartmentr,tyear,suggestingthattheutilizationan,thenumberofnewlyincomingmigrantworkershasaccountedforonly5%orsoofallmigrantworkersintheprovince,beinglowerthanthelevelof10%sspeciallaboremploymentinvestigationdemonstratesthat3,966enterprisesintheprovinceareshortof50laborersormoreandtheyintendtorecruit245,000people,signifyingareductionof13,%.Labordemandonthehumanresourcesmarketisdecreasingaswellfromayearearlierandtheprincipalcauseisthatthepressureof,TransferwithinProvincesIsGrowingFast,theNumberofWorkersReturningHometownsforBusinessStartupandBackflowofSkilledWorkersHaveIncreased,yetOnlySomeNewly-increasedWorkersCanBeLocallyProvidedwithJobsAtpresent,,,,000everyyearduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,whiletheprovincecanonlyprovide350,000jobs,an,Yulin,TongchuanandHabusinessstartupsintheirhometowns,entrepreneurshiptrainingandsuchpoliciesasgovernmentsupplyofsmallloansguarantees,thenumberofmigr,224,000farmershadgonebacktoShaanxitostartbusinessesandsetup98,000enterprises,providingjobsto595,,,,ysbeengrowingsince2001andthenumberincreasedto23millionin2011,,upby778,000,,down214,"NewAreasofSichuan",thekeyprojectsinChengduin2012wouldneed350,,,2millionpeopleincitiesandtownsoftheprovinceneedjobsandtherea,ononehand,thesituationofChinafacedwithapressureofitsaggregateemploymentvolumecontinuallyintensifyinghasbecomemoresevereandcomplicatedduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodand,ontheother,thelaborforcetransferandrivalryamongtheeastern,lusters,whilecentralandwesternregionstakeineasterncoastalregionwithinashortperiodoftimeintermsofrelativelyperfectinfrastructurefacilities,completeindustrialchains,betterlivinpacitiesincentralandwesternregionshasincreasedtheaggregatelabordemand,yetwhentakingovershiftedindustriesandenterprisesfromtheeasternregion,someprovincesandmunicipalitiesincentralabypresententerprisesandareunableatalltoabsorbtheworkingpopulationsqueezedoutfromtheeasternregioninaddressingthefinancialcrisisandexportdownturn.Industrialproductionacceleratedquarterbyqu,%,yearonyear,,%riseinthefirstquarter,%%%inSeptember,whichwitnessedthefastestgrowthasofthebeginningoftheyear,andtheindustrialpr,%,,buttheincreaserat,the%,%,%andthatofforeign-investedandtheHongKong,%.Intermsofindustry,,theindustrialproductionofChina%,%%.Theratioofsalestoproductionofindustrialproductsturnedoutgood,withthesell%.FromJanuarytoAugust,the,%yearonyear,,,theaddedvalueofthetra%,%,%,tha%,%,%,%,%andt%,whiletheoilexplorationindustry%fromayearago,%,%,%,%%.Duringthefirstthreequarters,%,yearonyear,ar;%,SinceOctober2006,,thepurchasepricesofpaddy,%,%%,inparticular,haveseenacontinualandrecoveryriseafteradownturninthefirsthalfof2006and,byMay2007,theporkpricesinsomecitiesinsouthernChinahadrisenapparentlyandaffectednorthernChina,t,,,%,thepricesofChinasagrctsResearcheshaveshownthatbytheoreticalanalysisthecyclicalfluctuationsofthepricesofChinasagriculturalproducts(Tofacilitatetheanalysis,thispaperusestheestimatedresultsofλ=100tomaketheanalysis.)sawhole,ons,namely,biasedasymmetryandthoroughgoingasymmetry,andthesetwotypesoffluctuationscanalsobringaboutotherformsofasymmetry(LiuJinquanandFanJianqing,2001).,thetimeanddegreeofcyclicalfluctuations(Ascyclicalfluctuationsarenotsymmetricalintermsofcrossaxle,therefore,,thispaperuseswavedistanceasaunittoindicatethedistancebetweenwavecrestandtrough.),during1978~1986and1993~2000thepricesofagriculturalproductsfluctuatedfor8years,andfor6yearsduring1987~1992,allbeingmedium-andlong-termperiods;thepricesfluctuatedfor4yearsduring2003~2006andonlyfor2yearsduring2001~2002,,during1993~%,andthedegreeoffluctuationsduring1987~%,beingextremelyfierce;whiledegreesofthepricefluctuationsinotheryearswerealllessthan10%,,swereinthemiddleofthewavelength,suchas1987~1992,1993~2000and2001~2002,thediffe,thet,during1978~1986,1987~1992and2001~2002,thepricesrosesteeplyanddroppedslowlyand,during1993~2000and2003~2006thepricesincreasedslowlybutdeclinedswiftly(Table2).Fourthly,thefluctuationso,thedegreesofthef,during2003~2006,thesoybeanpriceroseashighas116%,thecornpricesurged75%,thewheatpricesoared46%,whilethepaddypriceonlyinchedup4%.ByXiaBin,ResearchInstituteofFinanceoftheDRCResearchReportNo130,arandthebeginningof2010,underthepressureofexcessmoneysupplyathome,therealestatepricessurgedup,thesystematiclocaldebtrisksbecameconspicuous,qualityofbankassetswas,itisimmi,thegov,%%inthesecond,,accordingtopredictionsbymanyinstitutions,GDPgrowthwillcontinuetodeclineduringthethirdandfourthquartersandislikelytogodowntolessthan9%,,presentingagrowth-declinetrendItisattributabletothegrowthbaseoflastyearandismainlyasaresultformancetobecomestablewithinashortperiodoftime,namelytherealestatepolicy,therectificationoflocalfinancingplatf,,afactorthatcannotbeneglectedisthatthenewloanmanagementmodelof"ThreeMeasuresandOneGuidance"enactedbyChinaBankingRegulatoryCommissionhasevidentlyreducedthederivedfactor,thusplayingtheroleasdoesthe,intermsoffutureeconomicperformance,despitethequarterlyslowdownandthegrowthfollowedbydeclinetrend,thepredictionmadebyalargenumberofChineseandforeigninstitutionsoverthepreviousperiodoftimeisthattheeconomicgrowthforthewholeyearwillstillbeabletoremainbetween9%~10%(%%byOECD).CPIwillrisetoitsmaximuminthethirdquarter,~,thusafailureofcontrolwillnotappear(Recently,someinstitutions,suchasGoldmanSachsGroup,aregraduallybringingdowntheirCPIpredictiveindicatorsforthewholeyear).Itshouldbementionedthatthepresentdevelopmenttrendisapositiveresultofthe,reflectingthechangeofthemo,nextyeartheyear,theeconomicfailurewillbelittlepossibleonthewholeduringthisyear,whichhasrelativelyprovidedarare,policiesforthelatterhalfoftheyearshouldstillbefocusedonthemacro-controlmeasuresimplementedduringthefirsthalfandontheprincipleof"continuity,stability,flexibilityandpertinence"putforw,closeattentionshouldbepaidtothechangeofsituationandtherhythmandintensityofmacro-controlshouldbehandledproperlytocontinuallyadvancethechangeofthemodeofeconomicdevelop,%,thecentralbankinthebegi,%.Sucharateofincrease,asitshows,isnotslowandthemonetarypolicyismoderatelyeasy,becauseduringthe5yearsfrom2004~2008,GDPunde%.IftheGDPgrowthratereaches9%orsothisyear,thegrowthrateofloanswillbefiv,eformof"bank-trustco-operation",thefinancialvolumethrough"bank-trustco-operation",wemustexercisesupervisionoversuchcooperation,becausewehavehadpenedinpreviousyearsresultedallfromthenegligenceofthemarketfig,,toguardagainsttheunnecessaryadverseimpactcausedbytheonce-and-for-allincreaseofinterestratesonthemarketduringthedownturnoftheeconomicgrowth,wecannotdobetterthanboosttheinterestrateliberalizationatthisfavorablemomenttobringupthedepositratestoamoderatelevel(Banksarevirtuallybringinguptheratesindisguisedform).Inviewoftheexchangeratepolicy,responseshavecomefavorablyfromhome,weshouldputintopracticetheofficiallyclaimedreformoftheexchangeratesystemaccordingtorelevantplanningaftermakingpropertransewholeaswellasfavorthesteadydevelopmentofChina’sforeigntradeandthegradualadvancementofitsstructuraladjustment.Intermsoflaborcost,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkthatlaborcosthasrisenatpresent,,%ofprivateentrepreneursregardpresentmaterialpurchasepricesasrising,isesSince2011,theretrenchmentofthemoneta%ofprivateenterprisesareshortofcirculatingfunds,%%,privateenterprisesinnortheastandcentralChina,smallandmedium-sizedprivateenterprises,thoseintherealestateindustry,accommodationandcateringindustriesandinthemanufacturingin,privateenterprises,especiallysmallandmedium-sizedones,accesstobankloans,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkitfairlydifficultormuchdifficulttohaveaccesstotheloans,%%,"payingextracosts,apartfromregulatedinterestrates,relatedtobankloans"hasbeendesignedinthesurve%ofprivateentrepreneurssaidtheyhadpaidalotormuch,%ofthemsaidtheyhadpaidnormalsums,33%ofthemsaidtheyhadpaidsome,%,,qu,"theissueofwhetheritiseasyordifficultforprivateenterprisestoraisenongovernmentalfunds"%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkitquitedifficultorcomparativelydifficulttoraisenongovernmentalfunds,%%,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkthetaxburdenisveryheavyorcomparativelyheavy,%%,beingmuch"theproportionofcharges,fund-raisingandleviesintheenterprisessalesrevenuepaidbytheenterpriseinayeartogovernmentsatalllevelsapartfromState-regulatedcosts"hasalsobeendesignedforth%oftheprivateenterpriseschose"0%",%ofthemchose"0~%",40%ofthemchose"%~1%",%ofthemchose"1%~5%"and4%ofthemchose"morethan5%".Andtheproportionoftheprivateenterpriseswhichchose"1%~5%"or"morethan5%"th,aboutthepredictionofemploymentstraitsinthenextyear,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkitfairlydifficulttorecruitworkers,%ofthemregarditasalittlebitdifficult,%%,%ofprivateenterprisesinwestChinathinkitfairlydifficulttorecruitworkers,%ofprivateenterprisesincentralChinawhererur,thenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedprivateenterprisesconsideringrecruitmentfa"escalatingexpectationsofjobchoosingamongmigrantworkersofyoungergeneration"and"excessivelyfastriseincommoditypricesheighteningthecostoflivingofjobseekersandloweringprospectiveearnings",whicharetoptwochoicesgivenbyprivateentrepreneurs,%%respectively,"shortageoftotallaborsupply"(%),"lowwageandlackofcompetitiveness"(%),"demandingjobskills"(%),"insufficientemploymentchannels"(%),"lossofemployees"(%)and"unattractivebrandsandbusinessscale"(21%).

    防控新冠肺炎,这些事你要知道!

    ByDengYusong,InstituteofMarketEconomy,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo023,er2008,tocopewiththeinternationalfinancialcrisisandthedrasticdeclineofsalesonchinasdomesticrealestatemarket,theGeneralOfficeoftheStateCouncilunveiledtheOpinionsonPromotingtheSoundDevelopmentoftheRealEstateMarketandcarriedoutfastimesincetheimplementationofthepolicies,,,%,,thesalestoconstructionratioofcommercialhousing1c,thesalestoconstructionratioremainedaround62%inChina,the,withtherapidincreaseofthesalesvolume,during2005-2007,thesalestoconstructionratiowentupto80%orsoandthepricerisebecamedrastic,,asreductionofsalesofcommercialhousingwidenedmonthbymonthandtheareaunderconstructioncontinuedtoincreaserapidly,,%,andthenationw,withtherapidincreaseofthesalesvolumeofcommercialhousing,,%,beingslightlyhigherthanthepeakvalueduring2005-2007,suggestingtheappearanceofaerapidincreaseofthesalesofcommercialhousing,thehousingsalespricesin70largeandmedium-sizedcitiesacrossthecountrywitnessedapositivegrowthsinceMarch2009ascomparedtopreviousperiods,%inDecember,beingthehighestsince2008;inJune,thehousingpricesturnedfromnegativetopositivefromayearearlier,%inDecember,yearonyear,,in2009,theaveragehousingpriceamountedto4,500yuan/M2,upby900yuan/M2ascomparedtothatof2008,,citieswhereriseofpricesofnewly-builthomeshasexceededthenationalaveragemainlyincludesuchfirst-tiercitiesasShenzhen,Hangzhou,,thehousingprice-to-incomeratio,theprice-to-rentratioandthehousingaffordabilityinsomecitieslikeBeiji,atpresentthehousingprice-to-incomeratioinBeijingisbeingover50%higherthantheratiorecordedduring1998-2006,,seofhousingpricesandtherapidincreaseofthesalesvolumehavegivenrisetothecontinuousincreaseof,,%,,%,yearonyear;theaccumulativerateofincreaseofthehousingareaunderconstructionth,%fromayearago.

    环保期刊2019年第9期

    ByZhangChenghui,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo030,hmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemhasbeenstudiedforoveradecade,buttherehasbeennosubsTheargumentshavefocusedonthefollowingissues.(1)Iscatastropheinsuranceapolicy-orientedorcommercialsystemHowdowedefinethegovernmentfunctionsinacatastropheinsurancesystemDoesthegovernmentthatestablishesacatastropheinsurancesystemhavetocontributefundsandifsoinwhatwaytomakecontributionsAretheinsurancecompaniesengagedincatastropheinsuranceandthegeneralpublicpurchasingcatastropheinsuranceentitledtopo,ranceandthatexcessdependenceongovernmentsupportmeansthisinsuranceisequivalenttoadirectfiscaldisasterreliefandthesystemdesignwillbecomemeaningless.(2)HowdothegovernmentdepartmentscoordinatewitheachotherWhichgovernmentdepartmentshouldexerciseleadershipoverestablishingcatastropheinsuran,theinsuranceregulatorydepartment,thecivilaffairsdepartment,theprofessionalmanagementdepartments(suchasthoseinchargeofearthquakeadministration,meteorologicaladministration,oceanicadministrationandtheMinistryofWaterResources),theNationalDisasterReductionCommission,disciplinesanddepartments,itrequiresnotonlyclearguidelinesandreliabledesigns,,itwilllacktherequiredauthorityandabilitytocoordinate;butifanadministrativeinstitutionoftheStateCouncildoesthejob,snationalconditionsManyofthepastresearchesaredevotedtothei,,designedforaspecificcatastropheorfordiversecatastrophesShoulditcoverthewholecountryorbeginwithjustoneprovinceHowtoensurethesystemtobebothscientificandoperableWhichoperationalmodelandriskdiversificationmodeshacatastrophefundorthemodelofacatastrophereinsurancecompanyandshoulditendowthereycountriesindicatethatthecoretasksofaca,andtheiroperationshavematuremodels,includingthenonprofitinstitutionalgovernancestructure,,,manyofthemhavebecomeadministrativeonesandhaveastrongimpulseforself-expansio,,whattypeofinstitutionsshouldexerciseleadershipoverthecatastropheinsurancesystemWhiledirectgovernmentmanagementisapparentlyimproper,for-profitcoanagementinstitutionisestablishedtodothejob,howcanweeffectivelycontainitsimpulseforscaleexpansionandrationallycontrolitsoperatingcostsoastomakethecatastropheinsurdingtoChinasnationalconditionsComparedwithothercountries,Chinahassomeuniquecharacteristics,,Chinaisavastcountry,,Sichuan,Qinghai,Tibetandotherplacesinthewestregiona,rainstorms,mudflowsandothernaturaldisastersthathitt,notonlythegeneralpublichasahighacceptanceofinsuranceproducts,butalsohasagreatercapacitytoadoptadvanceddisasterprevent,asthedevelopedregionshaveahighpopulationdensityandahighassetsvalue,,wecannotsimplyc,wecannotintroduceuniformfeerate,weshoulddesignascientificandrationalcatastropheinsurance,theinsuranceindustryasawholeisunderdeveloiseforcatastropheriskmanagementmakesitimpossibletomobilizethe,thepublicpreparednessfornaturaldisastersisverylow,theinfrastructurefordisasterpreventionandlossreductionisunavailable,andsomemeasuresfo,Chinafindsitdifficulttorelyoncommercial,whichhasauthorityandcoordinatingability,shouldexerciseleadershipovertheestablishmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemandshoulde,,skdiversification,,itisnecessarytoadoptacompulsoryorsemi-compulsorymarketingapproach.LuWeiShenHengchaoInthepastthreeyearssinceChinapromulgatedthenationalintellectualpropertystrategy,thecountryhasscoredmarkedprogressinthefieldofintellectualpropertythankstotheunifiedleadershipoftheStateC,use,protectionandmanagementofintellectualpropertyhasexpanded,ualproperty,asintellectualpropertyhasjustbeenincorporatedintotheworkofvarioussectors,thescopeofprotectionhasbeenwidened,andtheimpl,intellectualpropertystrategyimplementationshouldemphasizetheintegrationwithindustrialdevelopment,theimprovementofsystemsandmechanisms,(orthestrategicprogramforshort),use,protectionandmanagementofintel,intellectualpropertyhasplayedagrowingroleineconomic,technological,,Chinahasexpandedthecapacityforthecreation,use,protectionandmanagementofintellectualproperty,,thecapacityenhancementisstrongerinthecreationofintellectualpropertythanintheuseofintellectualproperty,thequantitativegrowthofintellectualpropertyisfasterthantheimprovementofquality,theprotectionofintellectualpropertyismoredifficultthanthemanagementofintellectualproperty,andtheimplementationofp,ChinahasscoredmarkedprogressinthefieldofintellectualpropertythankstotheunifiedleadershipoftheSt,idated,andint,theenvironmentforintellectualpropertyprotectionhasbecomebetter,,’sinfluencehas,withthequantityoftheintellectualpropertyaccepted,,patentapplicat,trademarkregistrationapplicationswerethehighestintheworldandinventionpat,Chinarankedfourthintermsofinternationalpatentapplications,secondintermsofthegrowthofMadridinternationaltrademarkregistrationapplications,,voluntarycopyrightregistrationsrosefrom134,000to376,000,andcomputersoftwarecopyrightregistrationrosefrom24,520to81,,thefarmproductvarietyapplicationsacceptedrosefrom816to1,206,,newforestplantvarietyapplicationsrose45%,theircapacitytouseintellectualpropertyhasbecomehigher,andtheircon,theratioofpatentapp%andthevalueofregisteredtechnologytradingcontractsrose39%’shighestintermsofPCT(international),ZTEandHuaweirespectivelyrankedsecondandfourthintermsofglobalPCT(international),,%,andcopyright-h,,theLawonIntangibleCulturalHeritagehasbeenenactedandtheLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChinaonInfringementLiabilityhasclearlyincludedcopyright,patentrightandtrademarkrightintothesc,theImplementingRulesforthePatentLaw,theCopyrightLawandt,atotalof76lawseenforcementhasbecomehigher,thejudicialprotectionofintellectualpropertyhasbeenimproved,andadministrativee’scourtshavecoveredalllegalspheresofintellectualproperty,includingcivil,cordingtotheirfunctions,,,Chinahaslau"blueskyaction",the"mountaineagleaction",the"thunderboltaction",andthe"skynetaction".Theintensifiedcrackdownshaveincre,theStateCouncillaunchedaspecialactiononintellectualp,thisspecialactionhaspreliminarilycontainedrightsinfringementsandthespreadoffakeandinferiorgoods,,year,thetrialdurationforreconsideredcaseshasbeenshortenedto12months,,thedurationofpatentexaminationbecameslightlyshorter,thedurationofinventionpatentexaminationwasstabilizedat24months,andthedmonthsto3months,andthedurationofpatentreconsiderationcaseconclusionandpatentnullifieencompletedtocoverthewholeprocessofpatenthandling.

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uanpersquaremeter,inthefirstquarterof2005to5,654yuanpersquaremeter,4,518yuanpersquaremeter,,,withtherapiddevelopmentofprocessingmanufacturinginChina,thedemandsforr02and2009,itsustainedthepaceofgrowthandincreasedeveryyearcompare,thepurchasingpriceindicesofrawmat%%%,%,%thanthoseinthepreviousyearsrespectivelyin2004,2006,(Taketheyear-on-yeardataas100)Notes:①Theoutputvalueproportionsfor1985and1990werethoseofthepublicenterprises,theproportionsfor1995werethoseofthestate-ownedenterprisesasindependentaccountingunits,andtheproportionsfor2000and2006werethoseofthestate-ownedandstate-holdingenterprises.②Thetradedatafor1985,1990and1995weretheoutputvaluesoftheenterprisesabovethetownshiplevelasindependentaccountingunits,thedatafor2000werethoseofallthestate-ownedenterprisesandtheenterprisesabovethestate-designatedscale,andthedatafor2006werethoseofallthestate-ownedenterprisesandthenon-state-ownedenterpriseswithcorebusinessrevenuebeingabove5millionyuan.③Therewererelativelyfewtradeswhosedatawereavailableforthetimebefore1990.④Thetradeswereallthosewithgrade-twocodes.○5The38tradesfor2006inclu:EstimatesweremadeaccordingtoChin:theproportionofthestate-ownedeconomycontinuedtofallandgraduallygotstabilizedFrom1993to2006,theoutputvalueofChinasenterprisesinthewholeindustrialsectorrosesharplyto34,(basedontheoutputvalueofallthestate-o).Duringthisperiod,thenumberofthestate-ownedenterprisesdroppedfrom105,000to25,000andtheircombinedoutputvaluerosefrom2,,,theirtot,,(thedatawithoutindicatingsourcearequotedfromChinaStatisticalYearbook).Thep,thest%to30%.,withitsshareoftotalindustrialemploymentdecliningfrom43%%(thefallforthewholeindustrialsectorwas17%).Butitsfiscal,%%,,theproportionofthestate-ownedeconomydroppedfrom50%toabout30%.Thenumberoftrades,wheretheoutputvalueproportionsofthestate-ownedenterpriseswerebelow50%,reached30,accountingfor70%omover50%tobelow50%duringthisperiod,10tradesdidsobefore1995,threedidsobefore2000andfivedidsoafter2000(Table2).Mostofthetradeswheretheproportionofthestate-ownedeconomyalreadydroppedbelow50%inthe1980snowseetheproportiondropbelow20%orevenbelow10%.Table2State-OwnedEconomysGDPProportions(%,2006)ByLiZhinengWangJicheng,DRCTaskForceonLaborShortageinEnterprisesinSpring2012,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCOveraperiodoftimeaftertheSpringFestival(ChinasLunarNewYearwhichfallsonJanuary23,2012),manymassmediareportedthe"laborshortage"issueinsomelocalitiesandenterprises,whichdrewextensiveattentionofgovernmentaldepartmentsconcerned."Laborshortage"indicatestheovegdong,Zhejiang,Henan,Anhui,SichuanandShaanxiProvincestofindoutifthereisorwillreallybea"laborshortage",ReasonableandRelaxedwithaHighRateofReturntoJobs,WhichIsQuiteOppositetotheReported"LaborShortage"ZhejiangProvinceisstillfacingarecruitmentplightin2012,yetthetenselaboremploymenthasbeenalleviatedascomparedtothepreviousyear,andthelabor-starvedindustriesandtypesofworktallybasicallywiththeprovince,ahighrateofreturntojobshasbeenwitnessedamongwork,thesurveyof4,000smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinYiwucitysuggeststhatinrecentyearsanaverageof65%ofveteranworkershavereturnedtofactoriesinYiwuandthenumberofnewworkersintroducedbyveteranworkersonlabormarketmadeupanother25%,leavingarelativelyreasonable10%,,,%ofthehome-returneesbeforetheSpringFestival,andtheti,therateofreturntojobsapproached90%.AftertheSpringFestival,therecruitmentisaimedatstaffsupplement,withtherecruitmen,employingworkerscautiouslya,themonitoringdataonlaboremploymentbyenterprisesofHenanProvincedemonstratethatthelaborshortageratewas18%,icipalitiesrevealthattherateofworkersreturntojobsexceeded70%,"recruitmentplight"ocialSecurityDepartmentamong10,654enterprisesin30state-andprovince-leveleconomican%%skeyenterprisesofelectricalhomeappliancesandfastmovingconsumergoodssawtheirratesofworkersreturntojobsaftertheSpringFestivalallexceeding90%and"enormousstaffinflowsandoutflows",GuangdongandAnhuiasaResultofEconomicGrowthSlowingDownandExportDecliningThefactthattheglobalfinancialcrisisisstillfarfromcomingto,theinternalresources,environmentalconstraintsandstructuralreadjustmentfacingChinaseconomicdevelopmenthaveallmadethedownturnofChinasGDPaverageannualgrowthrateinevitableduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodandareproducingachallengeto,smallandurgentordersareinlargenumber,,fromJanuary26toFebruary12,2012,,%,(February6),theprovincesstatisticalandsurveydepartmentr,tyear,suggestingthattheutilizationan,thenumberofnewlyincomingmigrantworkershasaccountedforonly5%orsoofallmigrantworkersintheprovince,beinglowerthanthelevelof10%sspeciallaboremploymentinvestigationdemonstratesthat3,966enterprisesintheprovinceareshortof50laborersormoreandtheyintendtorecruit245,000people,signifyingareductionof13,%.Labordemandonthehumanresourcesmarketisdecreasingaswellfromayearearlierandtheprincipalcauseisthatthepressureof,TransferwithinProvincesIsGrowingFast,theNumberofWorkersReturningHometownsforBusinessStartupandBackflowofSkilledWorkersHaveIncreased,yetOnlySomeNewly-increasedWorkersCanBeLocallyProvidedwithJobsAtpresent,,,,000everyyearduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,whiletheprovincecanonlyprovide350,000jobs,an,Yulin,TongchuanandHabusinessstartupsintheirhometowns,entrepreneurshiptrainingandsuchpoliciesasgovernmentsupplyofsmallloansguarantees,thenumberofmigr,224,000farmershadgonebacktoShaanxitostartbusinessesandsetup98,000enterprises,providingjobsto595,,,,ysbeengrowingsince2001andthenumberincreasedto23millionin2011,,upby778,000,,down214,"NewAreasofSichuan",thekeyprojectsinChengduin2012wouldneed350,,,2millionpeopleincitiesandtownsoftheprovinceneedjobsandtherea,ononehand,thesituationofChinafacedwithapressureofitsaggregateemploymentvolumecontinuallyintensifyinghasbecomemoresevereandcomplicatedduringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiodand,ontheother,thelaborforcetransferandrivalryamongtheeastern,lusters,whilecentralandwesternregionstakeineasterncoastalregionwithinashortperiodoftimeintermsofrelativelyperfectinfrastructurefacilities,completeindustrialchains,betterlivinpacitiesincentralandwesternregionshasincreasedtheaggregatelabordemand,yetwhentakingovershiftedindustriesandenterprisesfromtheeasternregion,someprovincesandmunicipalitiesincentralabypresententerprisesandareunableatalltoabsorbtheworkingpopulationsqueezedoutfromtheeasternregioninaddressingthefinancialcrisisandexportdownturn.Lüormandopening-upwasimplemented,Chinahasdeveloped,stepbystep,acomparativelycompleteIPR-relatedlegalsystemandasystemforIPRmanagement,,ascomparedtohundredsofyearsithastakeninthecaseofWesterncountries,,,however,istheex,IPRdevelopmentindifferentregionsandsectorsisunbalanced,andgreatereffoalpracticehasbeendeveloped,andIPRmanagementandlaw-enforcingsystemswithChinesecharacteristicshavebeencreated,althoughsomesupplementarylawsandregulationshavenotbeenworkedoutyetandthemanagementandlaw-enforcingsystemscallforfurtherimprovementSofar,ChinahasdevelopedacomparativelycompletesystemofbasicIPRlaws,alt,forinstance,anyanti-monopolylaws,odification,,lawsareenforcedbybothjudicialandadministrativedepartmeesandsectorsandlotsofdepartmentsinChinaareinvolvedintheundertakinginonewayoranother,thecurrentsystemofmanagementcharacterizedbyisolatedoperationscannotprovidesufficientchannelsforcommu,thecoordinatingroleofpoliciescannotbebroughtintodueplay,andisolatedexerciseofmanagementatmultiplelevelsoftenleadstolegislativeconflicts,oversteppingofmanagementpower,,theChinesesocietyasawholehasnotyetbecomefullyawareofIPRprotectionorcapableoftakingadvantageoftheIPRsystemChineseenterprisesandindustriesarepresentlyexposedtotagesinlaborforceanddevotingconstanteffortstoinnovationcantheseenter,neitherhaveitsenterprisesnoritss,itsenterpriseshavenotyetbecomed,98-99percentofChineseenterpriseshaveneverappliedforanypatents,,mostenterpriseandinstitutionalunitsinChinahavenotyetcompletedtheirIPRmanagementsystems,andarenotcapableo,theymayinfringeupontheintellectualpropertyrightsofothersatwillorunconscientiously,andontheother,theydonotkn,Chineseenterpris,forinstance,igincomesintermsofIPRprotection,itremainsatalowlevelintermsofenforcementofIPRlawsandregulationsandclingstolocalprotectionismtosomeextent(1)Chinahasapproachingthelevelofdevelopedcountrieswhenratedaccordi,Chinastoodaroundthe20thamongthe110countriesintheworldin1993intermsofitsindexofpatentprotectionlevels,,ChinacameneartoGermany,theRepublicofKoreaandJapaninthisfield(Table1).Althoughwhatiscoveredintheindexaremainlycontentsofthelegalsystemtherangeofprotectionandthelaw-enforcingmechanismandtheycannotfullyreflecttheIPRprotectioncapacityofacountry,theyhavereflectedt

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——AnoverviewofthedevelopmentofChinasruralareasinthe10yearsafterAsianfinancialcrisisByHanJun,,2007AftertheoutbreakofAsianfinancialcrisis,theCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChineas,theenl,withapurposetogetadaptedtothechangesindifferentperiodsofthedevelopmentofagricultureandthenationaleconomy,theChineseGovernmenthasmadetimelyadjustmentstothepolicygoalsrelatedtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,andpromulgatedaseriesofsignificantpoliciesfocusingonincreasingfarmersristicsoftheevolutionofChinaspoliciesonagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthepastdecade,looksintothefu,farmersincome,inordertogetwelladaptedtothedevelopmentchangesatdifferentperiodsofagricultureinChinaAtthetimewhenAsianfinancialcrisisbrokeout,Chinawasseeingasufficientsupplyofagriculturalproducts,,Chinareapedabumpergraincropforfiveconsecutiveyears,lidfoundationformarketstabilityandadvancementofthelivingstandardsofruralandurbanresidentsandboostedi,itwasgettinghardertosellagriculturalproducts,,,thegrowthrateoffarmers,%,%,%,%%in1996,1997,1998,,aconsiderablenumberoffarme,Chinaputforwardsomemeasuresfeaturing"highyield,superiorqualityandhighefficiencyforagriculture",andstillconsideredititsfirstandforemos,Chinahadlargelyalleviatedtheshortsupplyofagriculturalproducts;meanwhile,theslowgrowthoffarmersin,itappearednecessarytoadjustthecountrysagriculturalpolicyinpur,greatchangeshadtakenplaceinthosemajorfactorsinfluencingthegrowthoffarmers,thestategovernmentelevatedthepurchasingpricedramatically(toanextentupto102%,intotal);atthattime,thepricesofgrainandmostotheragriculturalproductsalreasincomebyenhancingtheproductionoutputofagriculturalproductsandelevatingthepurchasingpricesofagriculturalproductshadbecomeinfeasibleanditwasnecessarytoseeksomenewmethodstoincreasethefarmers,theThirdPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteepassedthe"DecisiononMajorIssuesRegardingAgricultureandRuralAreas",whichmadeanimportantjudgmentonthedevelopmentstagesofChinaturalproducts;nowadays,theoverallsupplyofgrainandothermajoragriculturalproductshasbeenabletomeetthedemandatlarge,rimarygoalofagriculturaldevelopmentandruraleconomydevelopmentintheneweratoincreasethefarmersincome,whichcanberegardedasanimportantadjustmenttoChinatstagesofnationaleconomy,Chinaclearlyputforwardaguidingprincipleof"lettingindustrynurtureagriculture,andlettingurbanareashelpruralareasinpursuitofdevelopment",andmadeitastrategictaskinChinasdriveofbuildingnewruralareaswithsocialistfeaturesinthecourseofmodernizationAttheturnofthenewcentury,Chinahasfurtherimplementedthepolicymeasuresrelatedtofarmers,uiretattheruralworkconferenceheldin2003thatthePartysworkofprimeimportanceshouldbefocusedonagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,therebygivingmuchprominencetotheimportanceoftheissuesrelatedtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinChina,inascientificway,themainproblemsarisinginthedevelopmentofChinasnationaleconomy,the4thPlenarySessionofthe16thCPCCentralCommitteefurtherputforwardanimportantjudgmentknownas"twotendencies".Later,thePartymadeanotherjudgmentthat"Chinahasalreadyenteredanewdevelopmentstagewiththefeatureoflettingindustrynurtureagricultureandlettingurbanareashelpruralareasinpursuitofdevelopment"andmadeitclearthatthiswastheprincipletofollowedforaddressingtheissuesrelatedtoagriculture,gictas,theconstructionofnewruralareasinthenewhistoricalperiodechoestheobjectiverequirementsuponall-sideddevelopmentofruralareasundernewcircumstances,andconsistswiththeguidingthoughtwhichwasputforwardbythe16thCPCNationalCongresswithregardtosolvingthedualeconomicstructurecontradictionsbetweenruralandurbanareasandemphasustrynurtureagricultureandlettingurbanareashelpruralareasinpursuitofdevelopment,andsignificantstrategicmeasureslaiddownbythecentralgovernmentfromtheperspectiveoftheviewofscientificdevelopmentforbuildingasocialistharmonioussocietyandguidingtheworkwithregardtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthenewhistoricalperiod....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,oftheinterviewedenterprises,25sawtheirsalesrevenuegrowingrapidly(byover10%),38sawtheirgrowingsteadily(by5%~10%),13sawtheirgrowingslowly(by0~5%)%,only1islistedand4arestate-owned,%%%oftheirtotalemployeesduring2007~2011,%,theave,9sawtechnicallevelsoftheirmanufacturingequipmentlivinguptointernationaladvancedlevelsand13sawtheirsreachingtheadvanceddomesticlevels,suggestingthatequipmenttechnologiesareofvitalimportancetoproductqualityandcompetitivepower,%ofthetextileenterprisesinChinawereshortofworkersinvaryingdegreesand,inthefirsthalfof2012,%,,17ofthe81surveyedtextileenterprisesthoughttheyhadsufficienthumanresources,yetmostoftheenterprisessaidthatitwasquitedifficultforthemtorecruitgeneralandtechnierelargeenterprises,%ofallsurveyedlargeenterprisesand,3ofthe9enterprisesalsomentionedtheyhaddifficultyrecruitingskilledworkersandthatthenewrecruitswerelesscapable,suggestingthatproblemslikelaborshortageandinabilitytoretainpersonnelexistatlargeandtheproblemsarenotmuch,6ofthe17enterprisesthatheldthattheyhadsufficienthumanresourcessawtheirsalesrevenueincreasingbymorethan10%inrecent3yearsand10sawtheirsupby5%~10%,%,suggestingthatenterpriseswithgoodbusinessperformancearelessboggeddowninseriouslaborsh,19weremedium-sizedandsmallandmicro-sizedenterprises,makingup76%,suggestingthatlargeenterprisesaremoreattractivetotalentedpeople.isofthedatafromACompilationofCost-benefitDataonNationwideFarmProduce2007,(paddy,wheatandcorn)showsthatduring1978~2006ChinasgrainproductionmodelwasbeinggraduallytransformedandthebasicfeaturesofChinasgrain-productioncostwerebecomingmoreandmoresimilartothoseofJapan,SouthKoreaandChina,changesrelatedtoChina,thetraditionalessentialfactorsofproductionsuchasmanpower,animalpowerandfarmmanure,whichusedtomakeupthemajorityofthecostsformaterialsandservices,werebeingrelativelylessandlessusedandthe,moreandmoremodernizedessentialfactorsofproductionrelatedtooil,includingchemicalfertilizer,farmchemical,agriculturalfilmandfarmdiesel,werebeingusedandweregraduallytakingt,thegrain-produc,thenumberofemployedlaborerswasevidentlyreducing,,downabout74%.Giventhef//day,%%.Atthesametime,%%%%%,%.Aslaborforceisneededfortheuseofanimalpowerandfarmmanure,therapidincreaseoflaborcost,asitwere,hasfacilitatedtheacceleratedtransformationofChinasgrainproductionmodelinthecourseofmodernization,,afterthetransformationofthegrainproductionmodel,grainproductionwasbecomingmoreandmoreoil-dependent,namely,itwasbeingtransformedintoan"oil-dependentagriculture".ThetransformationofChinasgrainproductionintoan"oil-dependentagriculture",chemicalfertilizer,farmchemical,agriculturalfilmandfarmdieselbecamerelativelycheapessentialfactorsofproductiontotaketheplaceofsuchproductionfactorsasmanpowerandanimalpowerthat,whentheworldoilsupplygetsstabilizedandtheoilpricesdonotvarymuch,,oncetheoilpriceschangedramatically,theoil-relatedfactorsinChina,,comparedwithChina,asthelaborcostwasrisingfasterinJapan,SouthKoreaandChinasTaiwanProvince,theirgrainproductionbecamemore"oil-dependent".Nevertheless,thelandsizeofJapan,SouthKoreaandChinasTaiwanProvincewasmuchsmallerthanthatofEuropeancountriesandtheUnitedStates,therefore,theirgrain-,althoughChinasgrain-productioncostandpriceshadbecomeoncehigherthantheworldaverageafter1994,~1998,China,,Chinasgrain-produ,astheareaofChinasarablelandaccountsonlyfor8%orsooftheworldtotalandtheChinesepopulationmakesupnearly20%oftheworldtotal,theev,,,edland,plustheever-increasinglaborprices,theess,toensuregrainsafetyandmaintainhighgrainself-sufficiency,Chinasgrain-productioncostandpricesaremuchlikelytobecomeeventuallyhigherthantheworldaveragelevel,likeJapan,SouthKoreaandChinakeyfactorformodernizationhavebecomeanimportantintegralpartofChinasgrain-productioncost,~2006,theproportionofcostsformaterialsandservicespermuinChina,%.Nevertheless,,%,,%,,%,,%.Thetotalcostsforchemicalfertilizer,farmchemical,%% CostsforMaterialsandServicesRelatedtoChinasGrain-productionCost(Unit:yuan/mu)ByXuXiaoqingZhangYunhua,ResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo133,2011Thepilotprojectonregionalmanagementoffarmproductquali,meetthequalitativerequirementofexportfarmprodu,theprovincehasmadetangibleachievementsinintroducingthere,theprovincehasmovedfromemphasizingthequalityandsafetyofexportfarmprodu,theregulatorysystemonfarmproductqualityandsafetyhasbecomesousRegionalManagementofQualityandSafetyofExportFarmProductsIn2006asJapancomprehensivelyintroducedtheaffirmationtableofagriculturalchemicalresiduesinfoodproductsandastheEuropeanUnionintroducedanewactonfoodsafetyandhygiene,thefoodandfarmproductsexportedbyChinawerefound,throughtesting,,China,about70%wererelatedtothepollutionarisingfromtheresiduesofpesticides,,theinspectionandquarantinebureauofShandongProvincebegantointroduceinthecityofAnqitiveandtestresources,tightenedtheoverallmanagementofpesticidesandanimaldrugswithintheregion,standardizedtheplanting,breeding,production,processing,supervisionandmanagementoffarmproducts,,theprovinceofShandongpopularizedthisregionalmanagementmodelto,theprovincialgovernmentpromulgatedtheGuidelinesonAcceleratingtheBuildingofringtotheworkingmechanismfeaturinggovernmentleadership,departmentalinteraction,corporaterolesandmarketoperation,thedemonstrationareasadopteda"five-in-one""five-in-one"modelhighlightedthemainrolesofenterprises,thedependenceonbases,thefocusonstandards,,theagriculturalchemicalinputcontrolsystem,thequalityandsafetytraceabilitysystem,themonitoring,evaluationandwarningsystem,thecorporatequalityandsafetycreditsystem,ources,noillegalinputs,nomanagementblindspots,,,itintegratedforeignanddomesticmarketssothatmoreinternationallyqualifiedfarmp,regionalmanagementshiftedfromemp,theprovincesetanoverallrequirementforregionalmanagement:enforceinternationalstandards,integrateforeignanddomesticmarkets,buildShandongbrands,hainsupermarketssoastofullytaptheirrespectiveadvantages,widenmarketingchannelsfordemonstrationareas,andguidesupermarketstoestablishdirectprocurementbasesinoductQualityandSafetyThankstoyearsofefforts,theprovincehasintroducedtheregionalmanagementmodelonfar,24oftheseadministrativedivisionshavebeencertifiedasthe"demonstrationareasforthesafetyofexportfoodandfarmproducts".In2009,theStateQualityandQuarantineAdministrationbegantointroduceShandong,theexperiencehasbeenpopularizedin261county-leveladministrativedivisionsinChinas27provinces,mendedbytheStateQualityandQuarantineAdministration,,,1,,coveringvegetables,meatproducts,aquaticproducts,fruits,sdemonstrationareas,theoverallqualityandsafetyoffarmproductshasimproved,w%,thenotificationsbyforeigncountriesoverthesafet,theresiduesofpesticidesandanimaldrugsin2010were66%,Shandong,up30%stotalfarmpro,thequalityoffarmproductssuppliedtodomesticmarketshasvisiblyimproved,,theprovincehasestablishedmorethan50enterprisestopairdemonstrationareaswithsupermarkets,morethan4,000directfarmproductprocurementbases,,,thefarmproductsproducedinWeihaienteredtheprocurementnetworksoftheJapaneseAeon,theSouthKoreanLotteandothermultinationalcompanies,,gingersawitsproducerpricerising100%anditsexportpricerising43%,,appleexportrevenuerose2,,,"RedFuji"apple,wascertifiedasgreenfood,~,theprs.Source:imWhatmeritsattentionisthattherapidhousingpricerisehasbegunto,inMarch,salespricesofthenewlybuilthomesin23second-andthird-tiercitiesincreasedbymorethan10%,fromJanuarytoMarch,,%,,,,%,pri%,yearonyear,,andthesalespr%,,theaveragecompositesalespriceofcommercialhousingcameto5193yuan,%veresultedinunreasonablehomeleasingandsalespriceratiosandhousingprice-to-incomeratiosinsomecities,erealestatebubbletomakeagrowingnumberofaverageresidentsunabletoaffordthehomesandtoarousepanicamongthepublic,leahangesontherealestatemarketandthehousingpri,,thelandreservestobedevelop%overthepreviousyear,,thehandsomeinvestmentearningsgainedbyrealestateenterprisesoverrecen,whichkeepsthebidding,,thelandpricerisehasfurtheredtherapidhousingpriceriseinneighboringareasandhasconstantlydrivenupthehousingpricelevelonthewholemarket,thusbecomingalead-uptothisroundofhousingpricerise.

    芜湖市参加全省商务系统应对新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情电视电话会议

    ZhouHongchun,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentResearchReportNo50,2008Withtheconstantincreaseofincomesforurbanandruralresidentsandtheimprovementoftheirconsumptionlevel,thenumberofwastematerials,suchasscrappedcars,wastehardware,worn-outelectricandelectronicproducts,wastepaper,wasteplastic,,beingreclaimedandprocessed,canbereusedorrecycled,whichprovidesamaterialbaseforthedevelopmentofChina,categorization,circulationandprocessingofthewastematerials1,thispaperhassummarizedthepresentdevelopmentofChinasrenewableresourcesindustryandanalyzedtheexistingproblemswithaviewonlayingafoundationfortheformulationofrelevantpolicies.sRenewableResourcesIndustryThepercapitapossessionofmajornaturalresourcesinChinaislowerthantheworldaverage,andthecontraechoiceforrealizingthesustainabledevelopmentofChineseeconomy."Repairandutilizeoldordiscardedthingsandletallthingsservetheirproperpurpose"isafinetraditionoftheChineseworkingpeople,animportantwaytoenhancetheefficientutilizationofresources,aswellasaculturalbaseforthedevelopmentoftherenewableresourcesindustry.1.DevelopmentofrenewableresourcesindustryisjustbeginningtotakeshapeIngeneral,over30yearsofreformandopeningup,withtheconstantimprovementofsocialistmarketeconomy,Chinasrenewableresourcesindustryhasgraduallyexpanded,regionaldistributionmarketshavebeguntotakeshapeandthetechnicalcompetencehasbeenincreased.ThewastereclamationsystemhasRepublicofChina,companiesatvariouslevelsforreclaimingvariouskindsofmaterials(includingretrievalofmetals)andcompaniesunderthesupplyandmarketingcooperativesforcollectingwastematerialsweresetupthroughoutthecountry,,withtheconstantimprovementofChinasmarketeconomy,thereclamationsystemsetupundertheplannedeconomyhasstartedtoshrinkowingtorepositionoftheredundantreclamationworkers,theworkersswitchtootherprofessionsorretirementoftheworkers;andinparticular,afterthecancellationofthematerialmanagementdepartments,thereclamationcompaniesunderthematerialmanagementdepartmentsandthesupplyandmarketingco,farmersenteringcitiesforemploymenthavebeenengagedingreatnumbersinthewastesreclamationsector,andtheprofit-orientedpublicwastesreclamationsystemaimedmainlyatenterprisesorin,000tonsofwastealuminum,400,000tonsofscrapcopperandalmost300,000tonsofleadscdafoundationforthedevelopmentofChina,withthewideningincomegapbetweenurbanandruralresidents,especiallytheupdatingofthedailynecessitiesoftheurbanresidents,someoftheproductsthatfallintodisusearelittleusedorevencompletelyunusedandcanbeutilizedagain,thusbringingaboutthecirculationofthesecondhandgoodsfrombigcitiestomedium-sizedandsmallcitiesandthentoruralareas,whichcanbefeltbytheexistenceofwastereclaiming,,assupplyofresourcesinChinahasbecometight,importofwastemat,insuchcoastalareasasGuangdong,Zhejiang,Jiangsu,ShanghaiandTianjin,importingandunravelingscrapmetalshasgraduallydevelopedintoanindustryonalargescale;provinceslikeShangdongandHebeiarealsoregsHunanProvince,therenewableresourcesindustryhasdevelopedintoasectorwithdistinctivecharacters.Thetechnicalcompofagreatmanysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,whicharemainlysmallworkshopsorinvolvedinmanualoperationswithrenewableresources,isonalowside,whereassomeenterprisesgrowinglargerandlargerhaveahighertechnicalcompetenceinprocessingandutilizingtherenewabler,jointlywithChineseandforeignscientificresearchinstitutes,theequipmentordevicessuitableforthetreatmentofChinaswastematsrenewableresourcesindustry.velopmentofrenewableresourcesindustryAccordingtorelevantstudies,duringtheTenthFive-yearPlanperiod,therenewableresourcesreclaimedinChinatotaledabout400milliontons,withtheaverageannualrecoveryreaching80milliontonsandtheaverageannualgrowthrateregisteringover12%.In2006,thereclaimedrenewableresourcesinChina,suchasscrapmetals,wasteplasticandwastepaper,,%Reclamationandimportofwast,ironandaluminumcannotberegenerated,thescrapiron,uppliesbutcanalsoreducethedamagestotheecosystemcausedbythedevelopmentofnaturalresourcesandcancutdownthepollutantemissions,soastoematerials,someplaceshavedevelopedintorelevantbasesfortheproductionofrawmaterials,suchasTaizhouofZhejiangProvince,TaicangofJiangsuProvince,QingyuanofGuangdongProvince,GuluoandYongxingofHunaetofsavingenergy,re,steelandaluminiumaswellaswasteplasticconsumeenergyinproductionandareenergy-carryingproducts;andtheycansaveenergy,,;and10,000tonsofwastepapercanbeusedtoproduce8,000tonsofpaperpulp,withathriftof30,000cubicmetersofwood,12,000tonsofstandardcoalequivalentand1millioncubicmetersofwaterandwithadischargeofmorethan900,,%;,%;,%(Seefollowingtablefordetails).ByChenChangsheng,DepartmentofMacroeconomicResearch,theDRCHighsavingsrateisanimportantfactortosupportChina,anundulyhighsavingsratecancauseinsufficientconsumption,whichhasalsobecomeaprominentproblemaffectingthegrowthofChina,itcanhardlyworkouttarge,itshouldanalyzethestructuralfeaturesofpersonalsavings,andidentifywhichsectors,whatmassgroupsanrsWasMainlyAttributedtoHigherCorporateandGovernmentSavingsWhileRateofPersonalSavingsOnlyWentUpbyaNarrowMarginThechangestothefundflowtablewhichcanbestreflectthestructureofnationalincomedistributionindicatethatChina%%in2005(Chinabegantocompilefundflowtablein1992,andtheta).Thestructureofprimarydistributionindicates:first,theproportionoflaborpayrelatedtoaddedvaluehasbeenonthedecline,at62%in1993,47%in2004andslightlyhigherin2005;second,althoughpersonalsavingsratealsowentupslightly,itsproportionintotalsavingshasbeendroppingandthoseofenterprisesandgovernmentdepartmentshavebeenvisiblyrisingandpostinghighercontributionrates(Table1).Inparticular,orchangesinthepersonalincomerecei,therehavebeenetotheincomeofgovernmentdepartments(Table2).Meanwhile,ChinasGiniCoefficientcontinuedtorise,lyimprovedtheincomeofther,tosomeextent,me(%)

    【媒体解读】淮北日报:濉溪经济开发区发展势头良好

    ByWangLiejunGongSen,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo50,2010Chinashouseholdregistersystemisnotonlyapopulationmanagementsystembasedonhouseholdregister,butalsoasystemonrightsdefinitionandinterestersystem,itisnecessarytobrieflyreviewtheprocessofthesystemsFunctionHasGraduallyShiftedfromRestrictingPopulationMovementtoProtectingLocalSocialWelfareInadditiontothegeneralfunctionsofpopulationmanagementandpublicordermaintenance,Chinashouseholdregistersys,thecouonandtoprotectthelimitedjobscreated,,formallyintroducedin1958,wasdesignedtostrictlyrestrictruralpopulation,itsfoodsupplybecameincreasinglysu,,,,"peasantworkers",thehouseholdregiemsandaspeasantsvirtuallyhadnosayinpolicymaking,ahostofwelfaresystemssuchasfullemployment,housing,medicalcare,education,nursingandold-agepensionweresubsequentlyestablishedtotargetonurbanresidentsonly,whorepresentedasmallproportionofChinaspopulationatthetime(LinYifuetal:ChinasMiracle:DevelopmentStrategyandEconomicReform,TrinityBookstoreShanghaiBranch,1996;CaiFang:ChinasCityDevelopmentinTransition–CityLevels,FinancingCapacitiesandMigrationPolicies,EconomicResearch,,2003).Asthisprocesswashighlypath-dependentandself-reinforcing,,andpartlytoregionalgovernments,afterthemid-1980swhenthehouseholdregistersystemceasedtoperformthefunctionofrestrictingruralpopulationsmigrationtourbanareas,thesystemsmainfu:,,othermeansoflivelihoodandjobswerenolon,,thismainlinebegantohaveanewcontent:gister,whichwas,inasense,,nowpubliclydiscussed,mainlyreferstothelatter.(1)Thereformofsmalltownhouseholdregistersyst,featuringtheliberalizationofhouseholdregisterqualifications,,thedevelopmentofruralenterprisespromptedrurallabortorapidlymovetosmalltowns,andsmalltownsalsoneededtoexpa,smalltownhouseholdregisterofferedlesssocial,thestatebegantoallowpeasantstoworkandliveinsmalltowns(excludingcountytowns)(thelandmarkpolicydocumentwastheNoticeoftheStateCouncilonAllowingPeasantstoSettleDowninSmallTowns).Aftersomeupsanddowns,anation,theGuidelinesforPromotingtheReformoftheSmallTownHouseholdRegisterSystemwerepromulgatedtowidenareasforpea,thequalificationsforsmalltownhouseholdregisterwereto"havelegalpermanentresidenceandstablejoborsourceofincome".Inpractice,"legalpermanentresidence"becamethemainqualification,whichgraduallyevolvedinto"housepurchaseforhouseholdregister".Ashousepricesinsmalltownswerenothigh,speciallyintherealestatesector,butalsohelpedsolvetheseparationofmigrantrural,smalltownshavefailedtoincreasejobsbyabigmargin,moreandmoreeconomicandsocialpolicieshavebeenintroducedinfavorofruralareas,potentialcompensationsforlandexpropriationshavebecomerelativelyhigh,andthepeasantswhohaveacquiredur,smalltownhouseholdregisterhasgraduallylostitsappealtopeasants,andsomepeasantswhohaveacquireister,insteadofhouseholdregisteritself,thathavearealappeal.ByLiuYunzhong,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRC,PanWenxuan,ResearchInstituteforScienceofMinistryofFinanceResearchReportNo63,2010Differentnaturalconditionsanddifferentlevelsofeconomicde,developedregionshaveafairlyhighleveloffiscalresources;withscarcetaxsources,ifferenceinthetype,,,publichealth,lopment,astrikinghorizontalfiscalimbalanceandlresourcesbetweendifferentregionssothattheregionswitharelativelylowlevelofeconomicdevelopmentandrelativelylesstaxsourcescanprovffiscalresources,basicpublicservicesFiscalTransferPaymentSystemChinascurrentfiscaltransferpaymentsy,Chinabegantodrawoninternationalexperienceandintroducedforthefirsttimeinhistoryaformularizedtransitionalmethodfortransferpayment,,andalso,Chinahadpreliminarilyfor:taxrefund,,ferpayment,,,therefore,thispapershallregardtaxrefundalsoasatypeofcentral-to-regionaltransferpaymentandplacnsitionalperiod,thesubsidyundertheformersystem,,transferpaym,thefiscaltransferpaymentsystemunderwentaseriesofadjustmentstodealwithvariousissuesarisingfrompracticaloperations,(1)Transferpaymentforwageadjustmentwasintroducedin1999toofferpropersubsidytooldindustrialbasesaswellastocentralandwesternregions.(2)Transferpaymentforethnicregionswasintroducedin2000.(3)Transferpaymentforruraltaxandfeereformwasintroducedin2001toensurethenormaloperationofruralgrassrootsorganizationsandtheissuanceofwagesforruralprimaryandsecondaryschoolteachers.(4)Aftertheincometaxrevenuesharingwasintroducedin2002,,theincreasedcentralrevenuearisingfromreformswasmergedwiththdinreferencetotheinter-regionalgapinregionalstandardfiscalrevenueandexpewouldreceive.(5)Inlightofthefiscaldifficultyatthecountyandtownshiplevels,thecentralfinanceestablishedaspecialtransferpaymentin2005tohelpeasetheirfiscaldifficulty.(6)Inordertonarrowtheinter-regionalgapinfiscalresources,graduallyequalizebasicpublicservicesandensurethesmoothimplementationofthenationalpolicyonmainfunctionalareas,thecentralfinancein2008furtherimprovedthemethodtocalculatethecentral-to-regionalgeneraltransferpayment.(7)Thecentralfinancein2009turnedtheformergeneraltransferpaymentintoabalancingtransferpaymentandtheformerfiscaltransferpaymentintoageneraltransferpayment,andincludedtheexpendituresoneducation,socialsecurityandemployment,publicsecurityandgeneralpublicservices,whosesubsidieswererelativelystableandwereformerlyincludedinthespecialtransferpayment,,Chinascentral-to-regionalfiscaltransferpaymentconsistedofthreemainitems:taxrefund,erentimpactontheequalizationoffiscalresources.

    通肺炎防控办〔2020〕43号 《关于转发市台办支持台资企业应对新冠肺炎疫情影响的若干政策意见的通知》

    ByGeYanfeng,YuDongandZhangBingzi,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo87,2012Developmentofsocialpoliciesandrelatedinstitutionalimprovementsnotonlymakeitimportanttoclarifythetrendofreformanddevelopmentinvariousfieldsandspecificpolicies,butalsorequireadvancementofinstitutionalreforminrelatedfieldsandimprovementoftheoperationalmechanism,especiallyintermsoftechnologyselectionandmanagementinkeyfields,soastochallengesexperiencedinmakingandimplementingsocialpoliciesinChina,wewouldliketodrawattentiontothefollowingaspects:nTermsofResponsibilityforSocialSecurityandPublicServiceSocialsecurityandpublicservicefallintothegovernments,thenon-smoothresponsibilityrelationshipsamonggovernmentsatdifferentlevelshaveseverelyhinderedsocialdevelopment,mentsatdifferentlevelsconcerningdecision-makingrelatedtosocialsecurityandpublicservice,aswellasfollow-upinvestment,sresponsibilityfordecision-makingandoverallplanningInthefieldofsocialsecurityandpublicservice,wemustadheretoequalityandpolicyconsistency,thusitisessentialtofurtherstrengthenthecentralgovernment,thelocalgovernmentscouldbegivenrelevantrightinmakingspecificpoliciestosomeextent,butthegeneraldirectiofthecharacteristicsofdifferenttypesofsocialsecurityandpublicservice,itmustbemadeclearwhatistheresponsibilityofthegovernmentsatahigherlevel,whatresponsibilityrestswiththelocalgovernments,especiallyatthegrass-rootslevel,,especiallythoseatthelevelofcountiesandthecounty-levelcities,areresimplementationInviewoftheimbalanceineconomicdevelopmentfromregiontoregionandthefactthatlocalgovernmentsarecountedoninthedeliveryofserviceandadministration,itisimperativetofurtherreformandimprovethecost-sharingmechanism,strengthenthecentralandprovincialgovernmentsgeneraltransferpaymenttolocalgovernments,soastoequalizethegovernments,theexpendresponsibilityforsupervisinglocalsocialdevelopmentTheobjectivesandevaluationstandardsinthisregardshouldbestipulatedbythecentralgovernmentwhiletheconcretesupervisionandeval,itisessentialt,IdentifyProductAttributesandCost-sharingMechanism,andEnsureBenefitofthePublic,atareasonablelevelofserviceisprovided,inabidtopromotestandardizationofbasicpublicserviceThelevelandstandardofsocialsecurityandpublicservicemustbeinaccordancewithdevelopmentrequirement,ertoohighnortoolow,itistheprior,areasonablelevelofflexibilitywhichcanneverbetoogreatisallowedinthisregard;withinthesameregion,th,soastoenhanceperformanceofpublicinvestmentWeshouldnotonlysteadilyincreaseinvestment,butmoreimportantlyweneedtoenhancetheperformanceofthepublicinvestmentthroughinstitutionalizationeffortsandensurtinginvestmentforroutineoperation,andest,weneedtoreinforcesupervisionuponuseofpublicfunds,standardizecapitalflow,promoteopenandtran,weneedtofullylzedITdevelopmentandapplicationinvariousfieldsandbetweendifferentregions,,weneedtopromoteapplicationanddevelopmentofITtechnology,tobettermanagesocialsecurity,mWeshouldfullydrawoninternationalexperienceinthisrespect,offerserviceforfree,withbelow-costpricingoraccordingtocostdep,itisappropriatetoprovideitforfree,orforasmallfee(forthepurposeofavoidingwaste).Regardingtheserviceandthecostofwhichneedstobesharedbyindividualsandfamilies,theindividualsabilitytopaymustbetakenintofullconsideration,andcorrespondingreduction,exemptionorsubsidypoliciesshouldbedeveloped,toavoidreversetransferpaymentandensurethebenefitofthemiddleandlow-incomesocialgroups.ByLvWei,ResearchTeamon"SystemandMechanismConducivetoTechnologyReformofTraditionalIndustry",DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo141,2012Therestructuringandupgradingoftraditionalindustriesisnotsomethingthatcanbeaccomplishedovernight,reformoftraditionalindustries,enterprisesintraditionalindustrieshavebeenconstantlyrestructuri,theincreasingfactorpricesandthepressurefromresourcesandenvironmenthavedrivenforwa,modelsandpolicyenvironmentforrestructuringandupgradingtraditionalindustriessuchasapparel,buildingmaterials,displays,computernumericalcontrol(CNC)machinetools,heRestructuringandUpgradingofTraditionalIndustriesThedrivingforceandmodelsofrestructuringandupgradingvaryindifferentindustriesduetotheirdifference,footwearheadwearindustry:increasingfactorcostsdriveforwardtherestructuringandupgraditoacombinationoffactorsincludingtheincreaseinlaborprice,rawmaterialprice,water,electricitygasprices,infinancingandlogisticscosts,tothelostsomeoftheordersforexport,andsomeforeignbrandshavebeguntomovetheirOEM(originalequipmentmanufacturer),somecompetitive,themodelsofenterpriserestructuringandupgradingincludethefollowing:First,updatingequipmenttoimprovelaborproductivity,,suchapparelenterprisesasJiangsu-basedBosidengInternationalHoldingsLimitedandZibo-basedLutaiTextileCo.,"high-efficiencyandshortened-processembeddingspinningtechnology"onitsown,abreakthroughfromthetraditionalspinningtechnology,reducingt,movingfromlow-endmanufacturingtothehighendoft,integratingdomesticandforeignenterprisesandfactorsofproductionwithbrandedenterprisestakingthelead,,somebrandedenterpriseshaveimprovedtheirproductionorganizationandreformedtheirbusinessmodel,suchasprocessingoutsourcing,mergingwithandrestructuringSMEs,,someenterprises,adjustin,someenterprisessuchasWuxi-basedHongdouGroupandTaicang-basedXiangtangGrouphaveenteredthefieldsofbiotechnologyandnewenergy,whilesomehavesteppedintotherealestateindustry,usingprofitsfromnon-corebusinesstosupporttheirbusinessofapparel,:energy-conservationandenvironmental-protectionregulationsaswellasresourcepricesdriveforwardindustrialrestructuringandupgradingThebuildingmaterialsindustryisanendemissionreduction,thecountryhasraisedthestandardsonenvironmentalprotection,energyconservationandemissionreductionandreinforcedlawenforcement,forcingenterprisestomake,thedrasticincreaseinrawmaterialandenergypricesdroveenterprisestotaketheinitiativetoaccelerat,developingnewproductsandextendingtheindustrialchain,buildingmaterialsenterprisesfocusmainlyonupdatingtheirexistingprocessesandequipmentwithth,throughtheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionsinternationalcooperationprogramonenergyconservationandemissionreduction,AnhuiConchCementCompanyLimitedcooperatedwithJapaneseKawasakiHeavyIndustries,,whichhasnotonlyprovidedequipmentforitsinternaltechnologicaltransformationintermsofenergyconservationandemissionreductionandrecycling,butledtothefoundingofajointventure–ConchKawasakiEquipmentManufacturingCo.,,alargeprivateglassproducer,hasimplementedwasteheatpowergenerationanddesulphurizationde-dustingprojectsforitsnineproductionlines–withagrossinvestmentofRMB112million–incollaborationwithdomesticcollegesanduniversities,researchinstitutesandenvironmentalequipmentmanufacturers,:theapplicationofnewtechnologiesdrivesforwardtheupgradingofthemanufacturingtechnologyoftheentireindustryThecolorTVmanufacturingin,byintroducingandabsorbingadvancedforeigntechnology,Chinabuiltthecomplete"colorTVset–colorCRT–glassscreen"industrialchain,,theemergenceofLCDtechnologiesdealtaheavyblowontheChinesecolorTVindustry,whitryisthatmostenterpriseshavereplacedtheiroldproductionlineswithimportedones,:ThefirstisdirectlyimportingJapaneseandKoreanproductionlinesthroughjointinvestmentwithsuchcompaniesasSamsung,LG,AUO,CHIMEIandSHARP,,,Beijing-basedBOETechnologyGroupCo.,byacquiringHYDIS,asubsidiaryofHyundaiCorporation,andthroughconstantassimilationandindependentRD,,inclosecollaborationwithTsinghuaUniversity,Beijing-basedVisionoxhasdevelopedkeytechnologiesforOLEDmaterials,componentsandprocesses,successfullyproducedmonochromatic,multicoloredandcoloredPMOLEDdisplaysandcoloredAMOLEDdisplaydevices,andbuiltaPMOLEDdisplayproductionlineinKunshan,:themarketdemandandgovernmentsupportpromotetechnologicalupgradingandinnovationAsatechnology-intensiveequipmentmanufacturingindustry,theCNCmachinetools,theChineseCNCmachinetoolsindustryhasbeentroubledbythelackofcoretechnologies,weeksupportingcapacity,andtheunbalancedproductstructurewithexcessoflow-endproductsandshortageofhigh-endones,sandkeyfunctionalunits,butsomedevelopedcountrieshaveimposedrestrictio,theCNCmachinetoolsindustryhasremainedakeyncludesthehigh-classCNCmachinetoolsandfundamentalmanufacturingtechn,theemergenceofstrategicemergingindustries,andtherapiddevelopmentoftheequipmentmanufacturingindustry,thedomesticdemandonlow-endCNCmachineshasdr,theCNCmachinetoolsindustryisinurgentneedofrestructuringandproductupgrading.

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